SEED
BANKS




SEEDS

SEED BANKS

SEED BANK CHALLENGES

SEED BANK ALTERNATIVES

SVALBARD GLOBAL SEED VAULT

GLOBAL CROP DIVERSITY TRUST

FOOD AGRICULTURE ORG. UN FAO

FOOD AGRICULTURE ORG. UN LINKS

IN-SITU ON-SITE CONSERVATION

IN-SITU ON-SITE CONSERVATION LINKS

SOIL SEED BANK

COMMUNITY SEED BANK

COMMUNITY SEED BANK EHOW

SEED SAVING

SEED SAVING LINKS

SEED SAVING RESOURCES

SEED BANK LINKS



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SECTION 1



SEEDS




SEEDS

The part of most plants from which
another plant can grow. A seed has
a protective outer coat enclosing
an embryo that will become the new
plant and a supply of food for the
plants growth.



SEED
http://en.wikipedia.org//wiki/Seed



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SECTION 2



SEED
BANK




Seed banks are created as an important tool
to help preserve the genetic diversity, or
biodiversity, of the plant kingdom.

A seedbank stores seeds as a source for
planting in case seed reserves elsewhere
are destroyed. It is a type of gene bank.

The seeds stored may be food crops, or
those of rare species to protect
biodiversity. The reasons for storing
seeds may be varied. In the case of
food crops: many useful plants that were
developed over centuries are now no
longer used for commercial agricultural
production and are becoming rare.

Storing seeds also guards against
catastrophic events like natural
disasters, outbreaks of disease.

or war.



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SECTION 3



SEED
BANK
CHALLENGES




Stored specimens have to be regularly replanted
when they begin to lose viability.

Only a limited number of the world's biodiversity
are stored.

It is impossible to store recalcitrant seeds.

Only 15% of all seedbanked plants are wild
species; the remainder are crops.

There is a need for improvement of cataloging and
data management. The documentation should include
identity of the plant stored, location of the
sampling, number of seeds stored and viability
state.

Other information, such as farming systems in
which the crops were grown, or rotations they
formed, should also be available to future
farmers.

The financial cost of facilities are expensive
for third world countries which contain the
most biodiversity.




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SECTION 4



SEED
BANK
ALTERNATIVES




In-situ conservation of seed producing plant
species is another conservation strategy.

In-situ conservation involves the creation
of National Parks; National Forests; and
National Wildlife Refuges as a way of
preserving the natural habitat of the
targeted seed producing organisms.

In-situ conservation of agricultural
resources is performed on-farm. This
also allows the plants to continue to
evolve with their environment through
natural selection. An arboretum stores
trees by planting them at a protected
site.



SEEDBANK
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seedbank



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SECTION 5



SVALBARD
GLOBAL
SEED
VAULT




The Svalbard Global Seed Vault is located on the
Norwegian island of Spitsbergen near the town of
Longyearbyen (population 2,075) in the remote
arctic Svalbard archipelago.

The island is about 1,120 kilometres (700 mi)
from the North Pole.

The Seed Vault is managed under terms spelled out
in a tripartite agreement between the Norwegian
government, the Global Crop Diversity Trust and
the Nordic Genetic Resource Center (previously
named the Nordic Gene Bank, a cooperative effort
of the Nordic countries under the Nordic Council
of Ministers).

The Global Crop Diversity Trust has played a key
role in the planning of the Seed Vault and is
coordinating shipments of seed samples to the
Vault in conjunction with the Nordic Genetic
Resource Center.

The Trust will provide most of the annual
operating costs for the facility, and has
set aside endowment funds to do so, while
the Norwegian government will finance
upkeep of the structure itself.

An International Advisory Council is being
established to provide guidance and advice.
It will include representatives from the
FAO, the CGIAR, the International Treaty
on Plant Genetic Resources and other
institutions.



SVALBARD GLOBAL SEED VAULT
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Svalbard_Global_Seed_Vault



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SECTION 6



GLOBAL
CROP
DIVERSITY
TRUST




Global Crop Diversity Trust is an independent
international organisation which exists to
ensure the conservation and availability of
crop diversity for food security worldwide.

It was established through a partnership
between the United Nations Food and
Agriculture Organisation (FAO) and the
Consultative Group on International
Agricultural Research (CGIAR).

In 2006, the Trust entered into a
Relationship Agreement with the
Governing Body of the International
Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources
for Food and Agriculture.

The Agreement recognizes the Trust as
an "essential element" of the Treaty's
funding strategy in regards to the
ex situ conservation and availability
of plant genetic resources for food
and agriculture.

It also confirms the autonomy of the
Trust as a scientific organization
in raising and dispersing funds.



GLOBAL CROP DIVERSITY TRUST
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Crop_Diversity_Trust


Global Crop Diversity Trust
http://www.croptrust.org/



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SECTION 7



THR
FOOD
AND
AGRICULTURE
ORGANIZATION
OF
THE
UNITED
NATIONS
FAO




The Food and Agriculture Organization
of the United Nations (FAO)


Is a specialized agency of the United Nations
that leads international efforts to defeat
hunger. Serving both developed and developing
countries, FAO acts as a neutral forum where
all nations meet as equals to negotiate
agreements and debate policy.

FAO is also a source of knowledge and information,
and helps developing countries and countries in
transition modernize and improve agriculture,
forestry and fisheries practices, ensuring
good nutrition and food security for all.



Its Latin motto, fiat panis,
translates into English as
"let there be bread!".



Food and Agriculture Organisation FAO
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Food_and_Agriculture_Organisation



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SECTION 7A



FOOD
AGRICULTURE
ORGANISATION
UN
LINKS




Agricultural Development Economics Division
http://www.fao.org/es/esa/

Agricultural Information Management Standards
http://www.fao.org/aims/

Forestry Department
http://www.fao.org/forestry/en/

TeleFood
http://www.fao.org/food/english/index.html



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SECTION 8



IN-SITU
CONSERVATION



ON-SITE
CONSERVATION




In-situ conservation, on-site conservation,
conservation, Extinction,endangered, crops,
endangered plant, endangered animal species,
Conservation biology, Bio, Wildlife, Anamals,
Wildlife conservation, Kocal, Global, Food,
World Conservation Union (IUCN), Reintroduction,
Food plot, planting, Habitat fragmentation,
Wildlife corridor,Regional, Regional Red List,
wildlife, habitats, wildlife habitats, species.




In-situ conservation means "on-site conservation".
It is the process of protecting an endangered plant
or animal species in its natural habitat, either by
protecting or cleaning up the habitat itself, or by
defending the species from predators.

The benefit to in-situ conservation is that it
maintains recovering populations in the surrounding
where they have developed their distinctive properties.
As a last resort, ex-situ conservation may be used on
www.fao.org/es/esa/some or all of the population,
when in-situ conservation is too difficult, or
impossible.

Wildlife conservation is mostly based on in situ
conservation. This involves the protection of
wildlife habitats. Also, sufficiently large
reserves are maintained to enable the target
species to exist in large numbers.

The population size must be sufficient to enable
www.fao.org/es/esa/the necessary genetic diversity
to survive within the population, so that it has
a good chance of continuing to adapt and evolve
over time.

This reserve size can be calculated for target
species by examining the population density in
naturally-occurring situations. The reserves
must then be protected from intrusion, or
destruction by man, and against other catastrophes.



In-situ conservation
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/In-situ_conservation


Oldest viable seed
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oldest_viable_seed



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SECTION 8A



IN-SITU
CONSERVATION
LINKS



ON-SITE
CONSERVATION
LINKS




African Wild Dog Conservancy
http://www.awdconservancy.org/

Biological Diversity
http://www.biodiv.org/

BIOVERITY INTERNATIONAL
http://www.bioversityinternational.org/

Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, IUCN
http://www.cbsg.org/index.php

The Convention on Biological Diversity
http://www.biodiv.org/default.shtml

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
and the United Nations Environment Programme

http://www.fao.org/

IUCN/SSC Re-introduction Specialist Group
http://www.iucnsscrsg.org/

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
http://www.iucnredlist.org/

The World Conservation Union (IUCN)
http://www.iucn.org/

The World Wide Fund for Nature
http://www.panda.org/



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SECTION 9



SOIL
SEED
BANK




The soil seed bank is the collective name for the
store of seeds, often dormant, which are stored
within the soil of many terrestrial ecosystems.

Soil seeds banks of particular taxa have been
classified according to the longevity of their
seeds in species forming transient soil seed
banks, for species whose seeds remain viable
only to their next vegetation period and
persistent meaning that the seeds can survive
longer than to the next vegetation period i.e.
often longer than one year.

Species with relatively long viability of seeds
in the soil ( > than 5 years) form long term
persistent seed bank in opposition to those
species generally germinating or dying from
the soil seed bank earlier, which are called
short term persistent.

A typical long term persistent species is
Chenopodium album (common name: Lamb's Quarters),
a weed distributed in many temperate parts of
the world.

A species forming no soil seed bank at all
(except the dry season between riping and the
first autumnal rains) is Agrostemma githago
(corncockle), which is a formerly widespread
cereal weed species.



SOIL SEED BANK
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil_seed_bank



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SECTION 10



COMMUNITY
SEED
BANK




How to Start a Community Seed Bank


Community seed banks preserve seeds for future
use to ensure that we don't lose species of
flowers, fruits and vegetables.

They also help restore crops after a severe
drought, disease or insect infestation. Both
farmers in undeveloped countries and home
gardeners can benefit greatly from a good
seed bank.

It saves them from having to repurchase seed
at a high cost when a crop fails.



Instructions.


Step 1

Talk to gardeners, farmers and people that can
help you collect and organize seeds for your
bank.

The experienced farmer and gardener can tell
you that this is a year-round job. Preserving
seeds for future use takes a lot of work.



Step 2

Collect seeds, including tubers and cuttings.
Local growers can advise you on the best time
to collect and they can tell you what you need
from which plants.



Step 3

Clean and dry the seeds. In a warm dry climate,
you can do this by spreading the seeds in the
sun.

In hot humid climates, you should find an
alternative way to slowly dry the seeds.

If you dry the seeds too quickly, you can
damage them.



Step 4

Label and store the seeds. You should keep them
in moisture-proof containers with some silica
in a cloth bag inside the container.

The silica helps absorb any moisture that gets
into the container. Store the seeds in a cool,
dark space like a cellar.

Prime storage temperature should be slightly
warmer than that of a refrigerator.



Step 5

Check your seeds often. You may need to replace
the silica in the containers and possibly even
re-dry them.

What you need to do depends on the kind of seed
and the climate.

Talk to experienced growers to get some
good insight.



Step 6

Plant your seeds and use them to restock your
seed bank.

Plant them carefully, not too close to another
variety of the same plant.

You don't want to cross pollinate or mix two
kinds of the same plant.




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SECTION 10A



COMMUNITY
SEED
BANK
EHOW




How to Start a Community Seed Bank
http://www.ehow.com/how_2270999_start-community-seed-bank.html#ixzz0vzGbWA6k

Home & Garden
http://www.ehow.com/home/

Garden & Lawn
http://www.ehow.com/information_1053-garden-lawn.html

Garden Seeds
http://www.ehow.com/articles_4332-garden-seeds.html

How to Start a Community Seed Bank
http://www.ehow.com/how_2270999_start-community-seed-bank.html

How to Start a Local Bank
http://www.ehow.com/how_5281839_start-local-bank.html

How to Start a Seed Exchange
http://www.ehow.com/how_5937020_start-seed-exchange.html

How to Start a Community Outreach Food Pantry
http://www.ehow.com/how_2244181_start-community-outreach-food-pantry.html

How to Save the Seeds From Fruit & Vegetable Gardens
http://www.ehow.com/how_6507987_save-seeds-fruit-vegetable-gardens.html

How to Start a Banking Business
http://www.ehow.com/how_4869597_start-banking-business.html



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SECTION 11



SEED
SAVING




Seed, Seeds, seed saving, agriculture,
gardening, Biodiversity, Heirloom plant,
Orthodox seed, Plants, Plant breeding,
Recalcitrant seed, Soil, Sustainable,
Sustainable, agriculture, Local, Store,
National, Seedy Sunday,Seed treatment.
Organics, Farmer, organic farmers,
permaculturists, cultural, types,
vegetables, grain, herbs, flowers,
environmentalist, Family farms.




In agriculture and gardening, seed saving is the
practice of saving seeds or other reproductive
material (e.g. tubers) from open-pollinated
vegetables, grain, herbs, and flowers for use
from year to year for annuals and nuts, tree
fruits, and berries for perennials and trees.

This is the traditional way farms and gardens
were maintained.

In recent decades, there has been a major shift
to purchasing seed annually from commercial seed
suppliers, and to hybridized or cloned plants that
do not produce seed that remains "true to
type"-retaining the parent's characteristics-
from seed.

Much of the grassroots seed-saving activity today
is the work of home gardeners. However, it is
gaining popularity among organic farmers,
permaculturists and enthusiasts with cultural
or environmentalist interests.



SEED SAVING
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seed_saving



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SECTION 12



SEED
SAVING
LINKS




Australian National - Seed Savers Network
http://www.seedsavers.net/

How to Organize a Seed Swap
http://www.foodnotlawns.com/seedswap.html

Kootenay Co-op Radio
http://www.cjly.net/

International Seed Saving Institute
http://www.seedsave.org/

Organic Seed Alliance
http://www.seedalliance.org/index.php?page=Publications

Save Our Seed
http://www.savingourseed.org/

Seed And Plant Sanctuary for Canada
http://www.seedsanctuary.com/articles/seedsaving.cfm

Seed Swaps
http://www.seedswaps.com/

VEG SOURCE
http://www.vegsource.com/



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SECTION 13



SEED
SAVING
RESOURCES




Biodiversity
http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodiversity


Heirloom plant
http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heirloom_plant


Orthodox seed
http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orthodox_seed


Plant breeding
http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plant_breeding


Recalcitrant seed
http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recalcitrant_seed


Sustainable agriculture
http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainable_agriculture


Seedy Sunday
http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seedy_Sunday


Seed treatment
http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seed_treatment




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SECTION 14



SEED
BANK
LINKS




Abundant Forests Alliance
http://www.abundantforests.org

ALBS
http://www.albc-usa.org/

Big Emergency Seed Bank
http://www.EmergencySeedBank.com

Centre for Research on Globalization
http://www.globalresearch.ca/

CROP TRUST
http://www.croptrust.org/

DIVERSEEDS
http://www.diverseeds.eu/

Emergency Seed Bank
http://www.emergencyseedbank.com/

Evergreen Imstitute
http://www.evergreeninstitute.org/



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Farm Aid
http://www.farmaid.org/

Farm Radio International.
http://www.farmradio.org/english/

The Global Crop Diversity Trust
http://www.croptrust.org/

Global Exchange
http://www.globalexchange.org/

GRAIN.ORG
http://www.grain.org/

Green America
http://www.greenamericatoday.org/

Green Building Alliance
http://www.gbapgh.org/

Green man's Seedbank Update
http://www.seedbankupdate.com/su.html



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HOW STUFF WORKS
http://www.howstuffworks.com/

INHABITAT
http://www.inhabitat.com/

LIVE SCIENCE
http://www.livescience.com/

MOTHER EARTH NEWS
http://www.motherearthnews.com

Native American Seed
http://www.seedsource.com/

Native Seeds
http://www.nativeseeds.org/

Nature Conservatory
http://www.nature.org/

New Society
http://www.newsociety.com/



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The Nordic Genetic Resource Center (NORDGEN)
http://www.nordgen.org/

NRDC
http://www.nrdc.org/

One-Garden
http://www.one-garden.org/features/banking.htm

Roots and shoots
http://www.rootsandshoots.org/

Seed Alliance
http://www.seedalliance.org/

SEED BANK PROJECT
http://www.ciks.org/seedbanks.htm

Seed Bank Reviews
http://www.seedbankreview.com/

Seeds of Change
http://www.seedsofchange.com/



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Seeds of Diversity Canada
http://www.seeds.ca/

Seeds of Diversity Canada
http://www.seeds.ca/

Seed Savers' Network
http://www.seedsavers.net/

Southern Exposure
http://www.SouthernExposure.com

Start Your Own Seed Bank:
http://www.bukisa.com / articles / 163191_start-your-own-se...

Storey
http://www.storey.com/

Survival Seed Bank
http://www.SurvivalSeedBank.com

Survival Seeds Online
http://www.survivalseedsonline.com/

Svalbard Global Seed Vault
http://www.seedvault.no/



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Tips for Seed Saving
http://www.ehow.com/video_4945986_tips-seed-saving-seed-banks.html

TREE HUGGER
http://www.treehugger.com/

Tropical forest seed banks
http://www.biology-blog.com / blogs / permalinks / 4-2009 / tropical-forest-seed-ban...

USDA National Organic Program
http://www.ams.usda.gov/nop/

Victory Seed Co.
http://www.victoryseeds.com/project_seedbank.html

The Walrus
http://www.walrusmagazine.com/

World changing
http://www.worldchanging.com/



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