BASIC
REASONING
SKILLS




READING
WRITING
ARITHMETIC
REMEMBER


REASONING
THE
FIFTH
"R"




REASON

REASONING

TYPES OF REASONING

BASIC REASONING SKILLS

CRITICAL THINKING AND REASONING SKILLS

CRITICAL THINKING AND REASONING SKILLS RELATED TOPICS

DEDUCTIVE REASONING

WHAT IS DEDUCTIVE REASONING?

DEDUCTIVE REASONING RELATED TOPICS

INDUCTIVE REASONING

BASIC REASONING SKILLS LINKS



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SECTION 1



REASON




Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things,
for establishing and verifying facts, and changing or justifying
practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing
information. It is closely associated with such characteristically
human activities as philosophy, science, language, mathematics,
and art, and is normally considered to be a definitive characteristic
of human nature. The concept of reason is sometimes referred to as
rationality and sometimes as discursive reason, in opposition to
intuitive reason.

Reason or "reasoning" is associated with thinking, cognition, and
intellect. Reason, like habit or intuition, is one of the ways by
which thinking comes from one idea to a related idea. For example,
it is the means by which rational beings understand themselves to
think about cause and effect, truth and falsehood, and what is
good or bad.

In contrast to reason as an abstract noun, a reason is a consideration
which explains or justifies some event, phenomenon or behaviour. The
ways in which human beings reason through argument are the subject of
inquiries in the field of logic.

Reason is closely identified with the ability to self-consciously
change beliefs, attitudes, traditions, and institutions, and therefore
with the capacity for freedom and self-determination.

Psychologists and cognitive scientists have attempted to study and
explain how people reason, e.g. which cognitive and neural processes
are engaged, and how cultural factors affect the inferences that people
draw. The field of automated reasoning studies how reasoning may or may
not be modeled computationally. Animal psychology considers the
controversial question of whether animals can reason.



Reason
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reasoning



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SECTION 2



REASONING




1. the act or process of a person who reasons.

2. the process of forming conclusions, judgments, or inferences from
facts or premises.

3. the reasons, arguments, proofs, etc., resulting from this process.



Reasoning
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/reasoning



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SECTION 3



TYPES
OF
REASONING




Reasoning within an argument gives the rationale behind why one
choice, for example should be selected over another. Types of
reasoning include:


Abduction: the process of creating explanatory hypotheses.

Analogical Reasoning: relating things to novel other situations.

Cause-and-Effect Reasoning: showing causes and resulting effect.?
Cause-to-Effects Reasoning: starting from the cause and going
forward.

Effects-to-Cause Reasoning: starting from the effect and working
backward.

The Bradford Hill Criteria: for cause and effect in medical diagnosis.


Comparative Reasoning: comparing one thing against another.

Conditional Reasoning: using if...then...

Criteria Reasoning: comparing against established criteria.

Decompositional Reasoning: understand the parts to understand the whole.

Deductive Reasoning: starting from the general rule and moving to specifics.

Exemplar Reasoning: using an example.

Inductive Reasoning: starting from specifics and deriving a general rule.

Modal Logic: arguing about necessity and possibility.

Pros-vs-cons Reasoning: using arguments both for and against a case.

Residue Reasoning: Removing first what is not logical.

Set-based Reasoning: based on categories and membership relationships.

Systemic Reasoning: the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.

Syllogistic Reasoning: drawing conclusions from premises.

Traditional Logic: assuming premises are correct.



Types of Reasoning
http://changingminds.org/disciplines/argument/types_reasoning/types_reasoning.htm



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SECTION 4



BASIC
REASONING
SKILLS




Basic reasoning skills are those processes basic to cognition of all
forms. There are four categories of basic reasoning skills:


(1) storage skills,

(2) retrieval skills,

(3) matching skills,

(4) execution skills.



Storage and retrieval skills enable the thinker to transfer information
to and from long-term memory. These are the encoding strategies discussed
in Chapter 6. The learner does something on purpose to focus on the
information being studied or to relate it to information that is already
in long-term memory. An example of a commonly used storage and retrieval
technique is visual imagery mediation. The learner purposely develops a
visual (or auditory, kinesthetic, or emotional) representation for the
information to be remembered. Mnemonic strategies are also examples of
storage and retrieval skills.

Matching skills enable a learner to determine how incoming information is
similar to or different from information already stored in long-term memory.

Executive procedures are the final set of basic reasoning skills. These
skills are executive in the sense that they coordinate a set of other
skills in order help learners build new cognitive structures or drastically
restructure old ones. (They act much like the executives in corporations,
who coordinate the activities of other employees in order to achieve
commercial goals.)



Basic Reasoning Skills
http://education.purduecal.edu/Vockell/EdPsyBook/Edpsy7/edpsy7_reasoning.htm



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SECTION 5



CRITICAL
THINKING
AND
REASONING
SKILLS




Reason and critical thinking seem to be integrally linked. Scholar
B.K. Beyer defined critical thinking as the ability to make reasoned
judgments. Critical thinking is both rigorous -- not yielding to
emotional arguments -- and is focused on the validity of information.
With these skills, people can make decisions, come up with new ideas
and avoid being fooled by others.



Disciplined Thinking

Critical thinking involves engaging in a variety of intellectually
disciplined forms of thought. The thinker must be able to assess his
own thoughts and reject them if they turn out to be false. The thinker
must also assess the strengths and weaknesses of an idea.



Arguments

Critical thinkers must infer a conclusion from one or more premises.
For example, if a critical thinker smells smoke, that thinker will
likely infer that there is a fire. Critical thinkers have specific
criteria for what constitutes an argument. The argument must be
based on facts that are exact, free from logical fallacies and
strongly rational, as stated by Karen I. Adsit at the University
of Dayton. Critical thinkers are also open to changing their minds
when they receive arguments that are supported by evidence.



Essentials


Students apply various forms of higher order thinking, such as analysis,
problem recognition and problem solving. To think critically, students
must ask questions, avoid emotional reasoning, define problems, analyze
assumptions and biases, study evidence, avoid oversimplifying and show
openness to other interpretations. Thinkers must also tolerate ambiguity.



Relationship Between Information

Critical thinkers establish relationships between different groups of data.
Those who can reason take information from long-term memory and apply it
to information they are currently consuming. They must be able to take
information from long-term memory and determine whether they can categorize
it. They must also notice similarities between otherwise different ideas
and evaluate ideas by comparing them to an internal structure of logic, as
written on the Purdue University Calumet website.



Reasoning

Reason allows people to engage in actions that would be impossible otherwise.
For example, people use reason to elaborate on information that does not
explicitly state something, thus mining out new knowledge. Elaboration comes
from the individual’s ability to make inferences based on incomplete information.
Rational people can more effectively find information or strategies that allow
them to solve problems or accomplish goals. Finally, reason is essential for
creating and expressing new information through speech and writing.



Managing Information

People are fed large amounts of information because of technological advancements
that disseminate information more cheaply. As a result, they need critical thinking
methodologies to help them assess information and apply this information to complex
problems they face.



Ethical Reasoning

Reason is essential for developing a consistent form of ethics that transcends
religious beliefs, social conventions and local laws. For example, governments
may legalize actions that are considered universally wrong, such as torture.
Ethical reasoning is used to help people think about why these actions are wrong
under all circumstances.



Critical Thinking & Reasoning Skills
http://www.ehow.com/info_12044475_critical-thinking-reasoning-skills.html#ixzz2YqwTeBgJ



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SECTION 6



CRITICAL
THINKING
AND
REASONING
SKILLS
RELATED
TOPICS




Critical Thinking Skills Lessons
http://www.ehow.com/info_7895044_critical-thinking-skills-lessons.html

Four Elements of Critical Thinking
http://www.ehow.com/info_12044011_four-elements-critical-thinking.html

Skills for Critical Thinking
http://www.ehow.com/info_8144393_skills-critical-thinking.html

Critical Thinking Skills Lessons
http://www.ehow.com/info_7895044_critical-thinking-skills-lessons.html

How to Improve Your Critical Thinking Skills
http://www.ehow.com/how_4948249_improve-critical-thinking-skills.html

How to Test Your Critical Thinking Skills
http://www.ehow.com/how_7766169_test-critical-thinking-skills.html

How to Use a Lesson Assignment to Enhance Critical Thinking
http://www.ehow.com/how_12034365_use-lesson-assignment-enhance-critical-thinking.html

How to Train for Critical Thinking Skills
http://www.ehow.com/how_7189707_train-critical-thinking-skills.html

Types of Critical Thinking Skills
http://www.ehow.com/info_7997297_types-critical-thinking-skills.html

How Do I Develop Critical Thinking Skills in Students?
http://www.ehow.com/info_8321013_do-critical-thinking-skills-students.html

Ways to Improve Critical Thinking Skills
http://www.ehow.com/info_7906212_ways-improve-critical-thinking-skills.html

How to Improve Critical Reasoning on a GMAT
http://www.ehow.com/how_6692543_improve-critical-reasoning-gmat.html

Critical Reasoning Tricks for the GMAT
http://www.ehow.com/info_8084814_critical-reasoning-tricks-gmat.html

How to Improve Thinking Power
http://www.ehow.com/how_4474075_improve-thinking-power.html

Inductive Versus Deductive Reasoning
http://www.ehow.com/facts_5171103_inductive-versus-deductive-reasoning.html

The Difference Between Deductive & Inductive Methods
http://www.ehow.com/info_12005845_difference-between-deductive-inductive-methods.html

Principles of Induction & Deduction
http://www.ehow.com/info_7948153_principles-induction-deduction.html

Activities for Teaching Deductive Reasoning in Life Science
http://www.ehow.com/info_12311785_activities-teaching-deductive-reasoning-life-science.html

What Is Inductive Teaching?
http://www.ehow.com/info_12268561_inductive-teaching.html

Games That Test Deductive Reasoning
http://www.ehow.com/info_12024970_games-test-deductive-reasoning.html

Reasoning Vs. Deductive Reasoning
http://www.ehow.com/facts_5367813_reasoning-vs-deductive-reasoning.html

Induction Vs. Deduction in Science
http://www.ehow.com/about_5341442_induction-vs-deduction-science.html

About Deductive Reasoning
http://www.ehow.com/facts_5339396_deductive-reasoning.html





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Deduction & Induction Strengths
http://www.ehow.com/info_8608601_deduction-induction-strengths.html

The Difference Between Deductive & Inductive Methods
http://www.ehow.com/info_12005845_difference-between-deductive-inductive-methods.html

Forms of Legal Reasoning
http://www.ehow.com/list_6890425_forms-legal-reasoning.html

Fun Activities Using Deductive Reasoning
http://www.ehow.com/info_12015563_fun-activities-using-deductive-reasoning.html

Inductive Methods in Economics
http://www.ehow.com/info_8418535_inductive-methods-economics.html

Difference Between Deduction & Induction
http://www.ehow.com/facts_4781689_difference-between-deduction-induction.html

Activities on Geometry & Inductive Reasoning
http://www.ehow.com/list_7793641_activities-geometry-inductive-reasoning.html

The Advantages of Writing an Inductive Essay
http://www.ehow.com/list_5840725_advantages-writing-inductive-essay.html

Science Activities & Inductive Thinking
http://www.ehow.com/info_8470389_science-activities-inductive-thinking.html

Types of Algebraic Reasoning
http://www.ehow.com/info_8563423_types-algebraic-reasoning.html

Advantages and Disadvantages of Inductive Reasoning
http://www.ehow.com/info_8491871_advantages-disadvantages-inductive-reasoning.html

The Hypothetico-Deductive Method
http://www.ehow.com/info_8718919_hypotheticodeductive-method.html

How to Teach Mathematical Logic in Secondary Schools
http://www.ehow.com/how_7914708_teach-mathematical-logic-secondary-schools.html

Deductive Reasoning Lessons
http://www.ehow.com/info_12055417_deductive-reasoning-lessons.html

Deduction approaches in research methods
http://www.ehow.com/way_5698927_deduction-approaches-research-methods.html



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SECTION 7



DEDUCTIVE
REASONING




Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic or logical deduction or,
informally, "top-down" logic, is the process of reasoning from one
or more general statements (premises) to reach a logically certain
conclusion.

Deductive reasoning links premises with conclusions. If all premises
are true, the terms are clear, and the rules of deductive logic are
followed, then the conclusion reached is necessarily true.

Deductive reasoning (top-down logic) contrasts with inductive reasoning
(bottom-up logic) in the following way: In deductive reasoning, a
conclusion is reached reductively by applying general rules that hold
over the entirety of a closed domain of discourse, narrowing the range
under consideration until only the conclusion is left. In inductive
reasoning, the conclusion is reached by generalizing or extrapolating
from initial information. As a result, induction can be used even in an
open domain, one where there is epistemic uncertainty. Note, however,
that the inductive reasoning mentioned here is not the same as induction
used in mathematical proofs – mathematical induction is actually a form
of deductive reasoning.



Deductive reasoning
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deductive_reasoning



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SECTION 8



WHAT
IS
DEDUCTIVE
REASONING?




Deductive reasoning is one of the two basic forms of valid reasoning.
It begins with a general hypothesis or known fact and creates a
specific conclusion from that generalization. This is the opposite of
inductive reasoning, which involves creating broad generalizations
from specific observations. The basic idea of deductive reasoning is
that if something is true of a class of things in general, this truth
applies to all members of that class. One of the keys for sound
deductive reasoning, then, is to be able to properly identify members
of the class, because incorrect categorizations will result in unsound
conclusions.



Truth and Validity

For deductive reasoning to be sound, the original hypothesis or
generalization also must be correct. A logical deduction can be
made from any generalization, even if it is not true. If the
generalization is wrong, though, the specific conclusion can be
logical and valid but still can be incorrect.


People often use deductive reasoning without even knowing it. For
example, a parent might say to a child, "Be careful of that wasp —
it might sting you." The parent says this because he or she knows
that wasps have stingers and, therefore, that the observed wasp has
a stinger and might sting the child.



Inductive Reasoning

Inductive reasoning would work in the opposite order. The specific
observation would be that a particular wasp has a stinger. One could
then induce that all wasps have stingers. Many scientific tests
involve proving whether a deduction or induction is, in fact, true.
Inducing that all cats have orange fur because one cat has orange fur,
for example, could be easily disproved by observing cats that do not
have orange fur.



Syllogism

One of the most common and useful forms of deductive reasoning is the
syllogism. A syllogism is a specific form of argument that has three
easy steps: a major premise, a minor premise and a logical conclusion.
For example, the premise "Every X has the characteristic Y" could be
followed by the premise "This thing is X," which would yield the
conclusion "This thing has the characteristic Y." The first wasp example
could be broken up into the major premise "Every wasp has a stinger,"
the minor premise "This insect is a wasp" and the conclusion "This
insect has a stinger." Creating a syllogism is considered a good way
for deductive reasoning to be tested to ensure that it is valid.



What is Deductive Reasoning?
http://www.wisegeek.org/what-is-deductive-reasoning.htm



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SECTION 9



DEDUCTIVE
REASONING
RELATED
TOPICS




What Is Abductive Reasoning?
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-abductive-reasoning.htm

What Is Analytic Reasoning?
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-analytic-reasoning.htm

What Is Inductive Logic?
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-inductive-logic.htm

What Is Deductive Logic?
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-deductive-logic.htm

What Is Inductive Reasoning?
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-inductive-reasoning.htm

What Is the Difference Between Inductive and Deductive Reasoning?
http://www.wisegeek.org/what-is-the-difference-between-inductive-and-deductive-reasoning.htm

What Is the Pythagorean Theorem?
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-the-pythagorean-theorem.htm

What is Deductive Reasoning?
http://www.wisegeek.org/what-is-deductive-reasoning.htm



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SECTION 10



INDUCTIVE
REASONING




Inductive reasoning (as opposed to deductive reasoning) is reasoning
in which the premises seek to supply strong evidence for (not absolute
proof of) the truth of the conclusion. While the conclusion of a
deductive argument is supposed to be certain, the truth of the conclusion
of an inductive argument is supposed to be probable, based upon the
evidence given.

The philosophical definition of inductive reasoning is much more nuanced
than simple progression from particular/individual instances to broader
generalizations. Rather, the premises of an inductive logical argument
indicate some degree of support (inductive probability) for the conclusion
but do not entail it; that is, they suggest truth but do not ensure it.
In this manner, there is the possibility of moving from general statements
to individual instances.

Many dictionaries define inductive reasoning as reasoning that derives
general principles from specific observations, though some sources disagree
with this usage.



Inductive reasoning
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inductive_reasoning



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SECTION 11



BASIC
REASONING
SKILLS
LINKS




The 4-Step Guide To Critical Thinking Skills
http://www.edudemic.com/2013/06/the-4-step-guide-to-critical-thinking-skills/

Analytical Reasoning Test
http://www.queendom.com/tests/access_page/index.htm?idRegTest=2840

At Home with Reasoning Skills
http://www.shopwiki.co.uk/d/870751/648877880/At-Home-With-Reasoning-Skills-~-Non~Verbal-(7~9)

Basic Reasoning Skills
http://education.calumet.purdue.edu/vockell/edPsybook/Edpsy7/edpsy7_reasoning.htm

Critical Thinking and Reasoning Skills Help
http://www.education.com/study-help/article/critical-thinking-reasoning-skills/

Confirmation and Induction
http://www.iep.utm.edu/conf-ind

Deductive Reasoning Examples
http://www.buzzle.com/articles/deductive-reasoning-examples.html

Four Varieties of Inductive Argument
http://www.uncg.edu/phi/phi115/induc4.htm

Inductive Logic
http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/logic-inductive

Inductive reasoning
http://philpapers.org/browse/induction

Inductive reasoning
http://inpho.cogs.indiana.edu/taxonomy/2256

Learning: Reasoning:
http://www.answers.com/topic/learning-reasoning

Logical Reasoning Questions and Answers
http://www.indiabix.com/logical-reasoning/questions-and-answers/

The Miniature Guide to Understanding the Foundations of Ethical Reasoning
http://vault.hanover.edu/~ahrens/texts/Miniature%20Guide%20to%20Ethical%20Reasoning.pdf

Reasoning
http://www.speaking.pitt.edu/student/public-speaking/reasoning.html

Reasoning
http://www.education.com/reference/article/reasoning/

Reasoning in Organizations
http://www.orgreasoning.net/

Teaching Critical Thinking Skills
http://academic.udayton.edu/legaled/ctskills/ctskills01.htm

Thinking Skill: Reasoning
http://www.exforsys.com/career-center/core-skills/thinking-skill-reasoning.html



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