QUICK
REFERENCES




SCIENCE

ALMANAC

ATLAS

DICTIONARY

ENCYCLOPEDIAS

REFERENCES

TRANSLATION



BACK TO TOP



SECTION 1



SCIENCE




SCIENCE:

Science:
Latin scientia - knowledge,
refers to the system of acquiring knowledge
based on empiricism, experimentation, and
methodological naturalism.

The term science also refers to the organized
body of knowledge humans have gained by such
research.

Most scientists maintain that scientific
investigation must adhere to the scientific
method, a process for evaluating empirical
knowledge which explains observable events
in nature as a result of natural causes,
rejecting supernatural notions.

Less formally, the word science often
describes any systematic field of study
or the knowledge gained from it.
Particular specialized studies that make
use of empirical methods are often referred
to as sciences as well.

Fields of science are commonly
classified along two major lines:

1. Natural sciences,
the study of the natural phenomena
including biology;

2. Social sciences,
the systematic study of human
behavior and society.

Science as defined above is sometimes termed
pure science to differentiate it from applied
science, the application of research to human
needs.

Beginning in the "Middle ages" and until the
"Age of Enlightenment," the word science meant
any systematic or exact, recorded knowledge.
Science therefore had the same sort of very
broad meaning that philosophy had at that time.

It should be noted that in some languages, the
word corresponding to "science" still carries
this meaning.




STEPS
OF THE
SCIENTIFIC
METHOD



STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD

1. OBSERVING

2. QUESTIONING

3. STATING A HYPOTHESIS

4. DESIGNING AN EXPERIMENT TO
TEST THE HYPOTHESIS


5. FORMULATING A THEORY



SCIENCE
LINKS




ADVANCE SCIENCE SERVING SOCIETY
http://www.aaas.org/

BRAIN POP
http://www.brainpop.com/

CHEMISTRY COACH
http://www.chemistrycoach.com/

CHEMTUTEOR
http://www.chemtutor.com/

EVERYTHINGBIO
http://www.everythingbio.com/

INFO PLEASE
http://www.infoplease.com/

LEARN 4 GOOD
http://www.learn4good.com/

THE SCIENCE CLUB
http://scienceclub.org/

SCIENCE FRIDAY
http://www.sciencefriday.com/

SCIENCE MADE SIMPLE
http://www.sciencemadesimple.com/

SCIENCE MASTER
http://www.sciencemaster.com/

SCIENCE NEWS FOR KIDS
http://www.sciencenewsforkids.org/

THOMSON BIOSIS
http://www.biosis.org/



BACK TO TOP



SECTION 2



ALMANAC




An almanac (also spelled almanack,
especially in Commonwealth English)
is an annual publication containing
tabular information in a particular
field or fields often arranged
according to the calendar.

Astronomical data and various statistics
are also found in almanacs, such as the
times of the rising and setting of the
sun and moon, eclipses, hours of full
tide, stated festivals of churches,
terms of courts, lists of all types,
timelines, and more.

The word almanac comes from the Arabic
al-manaakh, "the climate," reflecting
its primary original purpose of providing
information about the calendar and weather
useful in agriculture.




ALMANAC
LINKS




EARTH AND SKY
http://www.earthsky.com/

FARMER ALMANAC
http://www.farmeralmanac.com/

MY TRAVEL GUIDE
http://www.mytravelguide.com/

OLD FARMER'S ALMANAC
http://www.almanac.com/

WORLD ALMANAC FOR KIDS
http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/

THE WRITERS ALMANAC
http://writersalmanac.publicradio.org/



BACK TO TOP



SECTION 3



ATLAS




A book of maps, a book of maps
is called an atlas because early map
makers often put pictures of Atlas
on the front pages of their books.


An atlas is a collection of maps,
traditionally bound into book form,
but also found in multimedia formats,
such as on CD-ROM.
As well as geographic features and
political boundaries, many often
feature:


geopolitical,
social,
religious
economic statistics.




ATLAS
LINKS




ATLAPEDIA ONLINE
http://www.atlapedia.com/

MAP COLLECTOR PUBLICATIONS
http://www.mapcollector.com/

MERCATOR'S WORLD
http://www.mercatomag.com/

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC
http://www.nationalgeographic.com/

WORLD OF MAPS
http://www.worldofmaps.com/



BACK TO TOP



SECTION 4



DICTIONARY




A dictionary is a list of words with
their definitions, a list of characters
with their glyphs, or a list of words
with corresponding words in other
languages.

In some languages, words can appear in
many different forms, but only the lemma
form appears as the main word or headword
in most dictionaries.
Many dictionaries also provide:


pronunciation information;

grammatical information;
word derivations,
histories,

etymologies;

illustrations;

usage guidance;

examples in phrases
or sentences.


Dictionaries are most commonly
found in the form of a book.




DICTIONARY
LINKS




1000 DICTIONARIES
http://www.1000dictionaries.com/

ALL FREE DICTIONARIES PROJECT
http://dicts.info/

CAMBRIDGE DICTIONARIES
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/

CENTRAL STUDENT DICTIONARY
http://www.wordcentral.com/

DICTIONARY.COM
http://dictionary.reference.com/

DICTIONARY LINK
http://www.dictionarylink.com/

FREEDICT
http://www.freedict.com/

THE FREE DICTIONARY
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/

FREE LANG
http://www.freelang.net/

FREE THESAURUS
http://www.FreeThesaurus.com



BACK TO TOP




FREE TRANSLATION AND PROFRESSIONAL
TRANALATION SERVICES

http://www.freetranslation.com/

The grammar book
http://www.thegrammarbook.com

HYPERDIC
http://www.hyperdic.net/

HYPER-DICTIONARY
http://www.hyperdictionary.com/

MERRIAM-WEBSTER ONLINE
http://www.m-w.com/

ONE LOOK
http://www.onelook.com/

WEBSTER'S ONLINE DICTIONARY
http://www.websters-online-dictionary.org/

WORD REFERENCE
http://www.wordreference.com/

WORDWEB
http://wordweb.info/

WORDWEB
http://www.wordweb.co.uk/

WORD 2 WORD
http://www.word2word.com/

YOUR DICTIONARY
http://www.yourdictionary.com/



BACK TO TOP



SECTION 5



ENCYCLOPEDIA




An encyclopedia,
encyclopaedia,
encyclopędia,
is a comprehensive written compendium that
contains information on all branches of
knowledge or a particular branch of
knowledge.

The encyclopedia as we recognize it today
developed from the dictionary in the 18th
century.

A dictionary is primarily focused on words
and their definition, and typically provides
limited information, analysis, or background
for the word defined.
While it may offer a definition, it may leave
the reader still lacking in understanding the
meaning or significance of a term, and how the
term relates to a broader field of knowledge.

To address those needs, an encyclopedia treats
each subject in more depth and conveys the most
relevant accumulated knowledge on that subject
or discipline, given the overall length of the
particular work.
An encyclopedia also often includes many maps
and illustrations, as well as bibliography and
statistics. Historically, both encyclopedias
and dictionaries have been researched and
written by well-educated, well-informed content
experts.


Four major elements
define an encyclopedia:

its subject matter,

its scope,

its method of
organization,

its method of
production.




ENCYCLOPEDIAS
LINKS




ENCYCLOPEDIA.COM
http://www.encyclopedia.com/

ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA
http://www.britannica.com/

ENCYCLOZINE
http://encyclozine.com/

FUNK AND WAGNALLS
http://www.funkandwagalls.com/

INFOPLEASE
http://www.infoplease.com/

LETS FINDOUT KIDS
http://www.letsfindout.com/

NOLO'S LEGAL ENCYCLOPEDIA
http://www.nolo.com/

WIKIPEDIA
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wiki



BACK TO TOP



SECTION 6



REFERENCE




In general, a reference is something
that refers to or designates something
else, or acts as a connection or a link
between two things.


The objects it
links may be
concrete,
such as:

books,
locations,
abstract,
such as data,
thoughts,
memories.


The object which is named by a reference,
or to which the reference points, is the
referent.




REFERENCES
LINKS




ALL THE TEST
http://www.allthetest.com/

ANSWER.COM
http://www.answer.com/

FIRST SCIENCE
http://www.firstscience.com/

THE GLOBAL LIBRARY
http://www.global.org/

THE GREAT IDEA FINDER
http://www.ideafinder.com/

HOW STUFF WORKS
http://www.howstuffworks.com/

INTERNET PUBLIC LIBRARY
http://www.ipl.org/

QUESTION.COM
http://www.question.com/

REFERENCE.COM
http://www.reference.com/

REFDESK
http://www.refdesk.com/

SCHOLIAST
http://www.scholiast.org/

UNSCRAMBLE
http://www.unscramble.net/



BACK TO TOP



SECTION 7



TRANSLATION
LANGUAGE




TRANSLATIONS




Translation is an activity comprising the
interpretation of the meaning of a text in
one language, the source text, and the
production, in another language, of a new,
equivalent text the target text, or
translation.

The goal of translation is to establish a
relation of equivalence of intent between
the source and target texts (that is to say,
to ensure that both texts communicate the
same message), while taking into account a
number of constraints.

These constraints include context, the rules
of grammar of both languages, their writing
conventions, their idioms, and the like.




TRANSLATION
VS.
INTERPRETING




A distinction is made between translation,
which consists of transferring from one
language to another ideas expressed in
writing, and interpreting, which consists
of transferring ideas expressed orally or
by the use of gestures (as in the case of
sign language).




CULTURAL
TRANSLATION




This is a new area of interest in the
field of translation studies.
Cultural translation is a concept used
in cultural studies to denote the process
of transformation, linguistic or otherwise,
in a given culture.
The concept uses linguistic translation
as a tool or metaphor in analysing the
nature of transformation in cultures.
For example, ethnography is considered
a translated narrative of an abstract
living culture.




FIRST
LANGUAGE




First language, native language or mother
tongue is the language a person learns first.
Correspondingly, the person is called a native
speaker of the language, although one may also
be a native speaker of more than one language,
if all of the languages are learned naturally
without formal instruction, such as through
cultural immersion before puberty.

Often a child learns the basics of his or her
first languages from his or her family.

The terms first, native, and mother can be
misleading. It is quite possible that the
first language learned is no longer a speaker's
dominant language, and therefore no longer the
first language.
Young immigrant children, whose families have
moved to a new linguistic environment may lose,
in part or in totality, the language they first
acquired.



DEFINITIONS




Definitions:
Definition based on Origin:
the language(s) one learned first (the language(s)
in which one has established the first long-lasting
verbal contacts).

Definition based on internal identification:
the language(s) one identifies with/as a native
speaker of;

Definition based on external indentification:
the language(s) one is identified with/as a
native speaker of, by others.

Definition based on competence:
the language(s) one knows best.

Definition based on function:
the language(s) one uses most.




LANGUAGE




A language is a method of communication.
Human spoken and written languages can
be described as a system of symbols
(sometimes known as lexemes) and the
grammars (rules) by which the symbols
are manipulated.

The word "language" is also used to refer
to common properties of languages.




TRANSLATION
LINKS




ALTAVISTA
http://www.altavista.com/

ESPERANTO
http://esperanto.org/

ESPERANTO LEAGUE OF
NORTH AMERICA
http://www.esperanto-usa.org/

FOREIGN WORLD
http://www.foreignworld.com/

FREE LANGUAGE TRANSLATION
http://www.freelanguagetranslation.com/

FREE ONLINE LANGUAGE TRANALATION
http://www.translation-guide.com/

FREE TRANSLATION
http://www.freetranslation.com/

FREE TRANSLATOR
http://www.free-translator.com/



BACK TO TOP




FOUNDATION STONE
http://foundationstone.com.au/

MR DOWLING
http://www.mrdowling.com/

MY LEARNING GUIDE
http://www.mylearningguide.com/

NEW ZEALAND ESPERANTO ASSOCIATION
http://www.esperanto.org.nz/

ROSETTA INC
http://www.rosetta.com/

ROSETTA STONE
http://www.rosettastone.com/

SYSTRAN
http://www.systransoft.com/

TRADU GUIDE
http://www.traduguide.com/

TRANSLATED NET
http://free-translated.net/

TRANSLATION TOWN
http://www.translationtown.com/

WORLD LINGO
http://www.worldlingo.com/

YOUR DICTIONARY
http://www.yourdictionary.com/




BACK TO TOP




CHILDREN SEARCHENGINES

CLINICAL ECOLOGY

CULTURE

HOME

FUN ELEMENTS

GENERAL-REFERENCE HOME

HOMESCHOOLING

INDIGENOUS PEOPLE

LATINO HOME PAGE

MICROENTERPRISE

NATIVE AMERICAN HOME PAGE

QUICK-LOOKUP

RACE RELATIONS

SICKLE CELL

SURF NET KIDS

WOMEN HEALTH

WOMEN-INDEX HOME PAGE

E-MAIL




BACK TO TOP