PLANT
ROOTS




ROOTS

PLANT ROOTS

WHAT DOES THE ROOT
OF A PLANT DO?


WHAT IS ROOT PRUNING?

HOW TO PRUNE ROOTS

GARDENER'S GUIDE TO FRUIT
AND VEGETABLE ROOT DEPTH


PLANT ROOTS LINKS



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SECTION 1



ROOTS




Roots are vital to the plant in a variety of ways: they provide
stability, store nutrients, and act as the primary source of
water and nutrient acquisition. In general, the root comprises
all parts of the plat that lie beneath the soil, even though
most of the tissues of the plant, including the vascular tissues,
are continuous throughout the root and shoot (stem, leaves,
flowers, etc.).



Roots
https://www.sparknotes.com/biology/plants/plantstructures/section2/



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SECTION 2



PLANT
ROOTS




When plants evolved from marine species and made their way onto
land they had to overcome many challenges to survive and thrive
on land.

One significant difference between water based environments, such
as lakes and oceans, and living on the land was the separation of
nutrients. Plant roots were a key adaptation for plants on land
to allow access nutrients and water stored in soil.

Living in water, plants are able to collect CO2, water and other
nutrients straight from the surrounding water. On land however,
these essential nutrients are separated between the atmosphere
and the soil. Over time, plants evolved two main systems to
collect sufficient nutrients from the two different environments.

Plant roots, found almost entirely underground, is their way of
collecting water and nutrients essential for growth and survival.
The roots of a plant perform a range of services that are essential
to the survival of any land plant; they absorb water and nutrients
from the soil, help to anchor the plant to the ground and often
store large quantities of food.



FIBROUS AND TAP ROOTS

A plantís root system can be either fibrous or have a distinct tap
root. Many dicot plants have a main root known as the tap root which
has many lateral roots growing from it. By having a thick tap root
that grows deep into the soil, the plant gains extra anchorage to
the ground. Some plants species have extra thick tap roots such as
carrots and parsnips that store large amounts of nutrients.

Fibrous root systems, common in monocots, have many very thin roots
spread out under the surface and form a mat of roots underground.
Keeping their roots close to the surface means they may lose some
stability provided by the deep tap root, however the large number
of roots firmly secure the plant to ground. Plant species with
fibrous roots such as grasses are also great at stabilising the soil
and preventing erosion. The extensive root system provides excellent
exposure to nutrients and water in the soil.



ROOT HAIRS

Plant roots are important for securing the plant to the soil but the
majority of nutrient uptake occurs near the tip of the root. Here a
large number of root hairs grow; very fine roots with large surface
area to volume ratio. By having a large surface area and low volume
it increases the efficiency of absorption of minerals and water.



MICORRHIZAE

A common feature of almost all root systems is what is known as
mycorrhizae. A mycorrhizae is a relationship between the roots of
a plant and fungi where both species usually benefit. The plant
supplies the fungi with a constant source of sugars and the
superior absorption abilities of the fungi help to provide the
plant with an increased supply of water and nutrients.

Carbohydrates produced through photosynthesis in the plantís leaves
and stem are transported down to the root tissue and the fungi. The
fungi are far smaller than any root hair and therefore have a much
smaller surface area to volume ratio and are much more efficient at
absorbing nutrients such as nitrate, ammonium and phosphate.
Mychorrizal partnerships are most beneficial in nutrient poor soils.



ADVENTITIOUS ROOTS

It is common knowledge that roots grow below ground, but in certain
cases, plants will grow roots above ground from stems and even leaves.
Plant roots such as these are labelled adventitious, a term used to
describe a structure that grows in a strange place.

Adventitious roots of a banyan treeThe banyan tree is a great example
of a species with adventitious roots, which have a large proportion
of their roots above ground. As it begins its life in the branches of
a host tree, the young banyan tree germinates and grows its roots down
to the soil, often wrapping itself around the host tree on the way down.
Many mangrove species also grow adventitious roots from stems to provide
support in an environment of constantly changing tide height and mangrove
fruit germinate on the tree and begin to grow an adventitious root while
they are still connected to the parent plant.

Although roots can come in many forms and develop in a number of different
ways, in nearly all circumstances their purpose remains constant and were
developed as a mechanism to collect nutrients and water in a land based
environment.



PLANT ROOTS
https://basicbiology.net/plants/physiology/roots



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Geotropism:
What Makes Plants Grow
up and Roots Grow Down?

https://owlcation.com/stem/Geotropism-What-makes-plants-grow-up-and-roots-grow-down




What Happens
If You Cut
Roots Of A
Plant Or Tree?

https://gardenersyards.com/what-happens-if-you-cut-roots-of-plant-or-tree/#:~:text=%20Negative%20Effects%20Of%20Cutting%20Plant%20Roots%20,lead%20to%20rotting%20of%20the%20roots.%20More%20




THE PLANT
ROOT SYSTEM
DISTINGUISHED
FROM THE SHOOT,
ITS FUNCTIONS

https://www.cropsreview.com/plant-root-system.html#:~:text=%20The%20functions%20of%20the%20plant%20root%20system,and%20carbohydrates%20as%20in%20the%20modified%2C...%20More%20




Plant
Biology:

Roots, Shoots,
Stems, and Leaves

https://www.dummies.com/education/science/plant-biology-roots-shoots-stems-and-leaves/




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SECTION 3



WHAT DOES
THE ROOTS
OF A
PLANT DO?




The main function of a plant root is to absorb water and minerals
from the soil for the plant to use. Roots also anchor plants into
the ground, offering them support and keeping them from washing
or blowing away. In some plants, such as carrots, roots store
carbohydrates that the plant has made through photosynthesis for
later use.



What Does the Root of a Plant Do?
https://www.reference.com/science/root-plant-298b9d7c2a901e58



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SECTION 4



WHAT IS
ROOT
PRUNING?




Root pruning a horticultural technique in which the roots of a plant
are trimmed. While this might sound like an alarming proposition,
root pruning can actually be good for plants when it is done properly,
and it can resolve a number of issues associated with trees and shrubs.
For root pruning, well sharpened, clean tools are needed, and some
gardeners recommend keeping a separate set of tools just for work on
roots, since grit from the soil around the roots tends to grind up the
tools quickly.



What is Root Pruning?
https://www.wise-geek.com/what-is-root-pruning.htm



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SECTION 5



HOW TO
PRUNE
ROOTS




While pruning the roots of a plant or tree may sound scary, it's
actually quite common. If done properly, root pruning can improve
the plant's growth and overall health. Container plants can become
"pot-bound," with tight circular roots that can't get enough
nutrition and will eventually kill the plant.

Trees and shrubs planted outdoors also benefit from root pruning,
especially if you're planning on transplanting them to a new
location.



Tips

Most plants do best if you prune the roots in the fall. This gives
your plant the opportunity to grow new feeder roots without having
to simultaneously support new growth.

Prune roots any time you transplant a plant. The new root growth
will help your plant establish itself in its new home.



Warnings

Container plants can conceal fatal root flaws fairly well. If your
plant isn't doing well, or if it's growing too vigorously, remove
it from the pot and inspect the roots carefully, pruning as
necessary.



How to Prune Roots
https://www.wikihow.com/Prune-Roots#:~:text=How%20to%20Prune%20Roots%20-%20Method%202%20Pruning,the%20drip%20line.%206%20...%20%28more%20items%29%20



How to
Root-Prune
a Rootbound
Plant

https://www.thespruce.com/caring-tips-for-root-bound-plant-847813




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SECTION 6



GARDENER'S GUIDE
TO FRUIT
AND VEGETABLE
ROOT DEPTH




For the most robust garden possible, one of the most important
factors is the soil and the depth to which various vegetable
and fruit plant roots grow. This is of prime importance for
growing fruits and vegetables in containers, but it is also
quite important in growing the plants in raised beds or
traditional gardens.



Root depths

Different kinds of plants require different amounts of space and
depth for their roots. It simply makes sense that deep-rooted
plants need to have the soil prepared to a greater depth than
shallow-rooted plants.

Plants that are grown in the garden can be separated into shallow,
medium, and deep-rooting plants. To get the best harvest from the
plants, the soil should be prepared to the minimum depth required
by the plants.



The magic six

For most garden plants, it is the top six inches or about 15
centimeters that is the most important, regardless of how deep
the roots eventually grow. This is because the bulk of the root
system usually happens within that top layer of soil. This means
that if you are going to only be able to spend a little time
working on the dirt in the garden, the first six inches should
get the majority of your attention and effort.



Gardenerís Guide to Fruit
and Vegetable Root Depth

https://virily.com/home-gardening/gardeners-guide-to-fruit-and-vegetable-root-depth/



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SECTION 7



PLANT
ROOTS
LINKS




Are There Dangers In
Cutting Tree Roots?

http://www.tiptoparborists.com/dangers-cutting-tree-roots/

Crop Rooting Depth
http://ucmanagedrought.ucdavis.edu/Agriculture/Irrigation_Scheduling/Evapotranspiration_Scheduling_ET/Frequency_of_Irrigation/Crop_Rooting_Depth/

Diagnosing Root Death
In Woody Ornamentals

https://extension.psu.edu/diagnosing-root-death-in-woody-ornamentals

The function and structure of
the root system in the plant

https://www.online-sciences.com/the-living-organisms/the-function-and-structure-of-the-root-system-in-the-plant/

How Deep Do Tree Roots Grow?
https://www.deeproot.com/blog/blog-entries/how-deep-do-tree-roots-grow

How Do Roots Work? Functions,
Structure, and Human Uses

https://owlcation.com/stem/Roots-Functions-Structure-and-Uses-to-Man

How To Air Prune Your
Cannabis Plantís Roots

https://www.spliffseeds.nl/how-to-air-prune-your-cannabis-plants-roots/

How to Find the Root
Depth of Vegetables

https://www.gardenbetty.com/how-deep-are-the-roots-of-garden-vegetables/



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How to Fix a Root Bound Plant
(When Itís Outgrown Its Container)

https://thepracticalplanter.com/how-to-fix-root-bound-plants/

How to Repot Container Plants
https://www.finegardening.com/article/how-to-repot-container-plants

How to Root Prune Properly
https://www.portlandoregon.gov/trees/article/492200

Hydrologic regulation
of plant rooting depth

https://www.pnas.org/content/114/40/10572

Information On How To
Prune Roots On Houseplants

https://www.gardeningknowhow.com/houseplants/hpgen/prune-roots.htm

The Importance of Healthy Roots
https://bonnieplants.com/gardening/the-importance-of-roots/

Maximum rooting depth
of vegetation types
at the global scale

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00329030

The Myth of Fragile roots
https://s3.wp.wsu.edu/uploads/sites/403/2015/03/fragile-roots.pdf



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Root
https://www.britannica.com/science/root-plant

Roots
https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Introductory_and_General_Biology/Book%3A_Introductory_Biology_(CK-12)/09%3A_Plants/9.14%3A_Roots

Roots
https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-biology/chapter/roots/

Root: Characteristics, Types,
Structure and Functions

https://www.biologydiscussion.com/plants/root-characteristics-types-structure-and-functions/6192

Root Pruning
https://www.evergreengardenworks.com/rootprun.htm

Root Pruning for Container Plants
https://www.groworganic.com/blogs/articles/root-pruning-for-container-plants

Root pruning guidelines
http://hort.ufl.edu/woody/root-prune-guidelines.shtml

Root pruning plants in containers
https://www.clairejonesgardens.com/root-pruning-plants-in-containers/

Sidewalk and hardscape solutions
http://hort.ufl.edu/woody/urban-sidewalk.shtml

Transplanting or Moving Trees
and Shrubs in the Landscape

https://extension.psu.edu/transplanting-or-moving-trees-and-shrubs-in-the-landscape



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Typical Plant Types
and Root Depths

https://www.hydropoint.com/wp-content/uploads/typical-plant-types-and-root-depths.pdf

What are the Main Functions
of the Roots in a Plant

https://www.aplustopper.com/main-functions-roots-plant/

What do a plant's
roots and stem do?

https://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/topics/zy66fg8/articles/zcxh4qt

What Do the Roots
on a Flower Do?

https://homeguides.sfgate.com/roots-flower-do-61449.html

What Happens If You Cut
The Roots Of a Plant?

https://gardeningbank.com/what-happens-if-you-cut-the-roots-of-a-plant/

What Happens to the Roots
After Cutting Down a Tree?

https://homeguides.sfgate.com/happens-roots-after-cutting-down-tree-74495.html

What Happens to Tree Roots
When a Tree Is Cut Down and
What Can I Do About Them?

https://mrtreeservices.com/blog/what-happens-to-tree-roots-when-a-tree-is-cut-down-and-what-can-i-do-about-them/

What Is An Air Pot
How Does Air Pruning Work

https://www.gardeningknowhow.com/special/containers/what-is-an-air-pot.htm

What Is The Root Of A Plant
https://www.gardeningknowhow.com/special/children/plant-roots.htm



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HOW TO
LAY OUT A
VEGETABLE GARDEN

https://www.almanac.com/video/how-lay-out-vegetable-garden?fbclid=IwAR3TMYUo6nOoFURZqJGsCCO0m7bt06mf3Dac8uU9d_RBJ3h0cFimFT_irv4




The best
gardening apps
for 2020

https://www.digitaltrends.com/mobile/best-gardening-apps/




Six methods of
plant propagation

https://www.gardenersworld.com/plants/five-methods-of-plant-propagation/




MIMI
https://en.mimi.hu/index.html




Readers
Digest

https://www.rd.com/




Farmers
Almanac

http://www.almanac.com/




Modern
Farmer

http://modernfarmer.com/




The Encyclopedia
of Life

http://eol.org/




PLANET KIDS
http://www.planetkids.biz/




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