Natural law, or the law of nature (Latin: lex naturalis), is a system
of law that is determined by nature, and so is universal. Classically,
natural law refers to the use of reason to analyze human nature — both
social and personal — and deduce binding rules of moral behavior from
it. Natural law is often contrasted with the positive law of a given
political community, society, or state. In legal theory, on the other
hand, the interpretation of positive law requires some reference to
natural law. On this understanding of natural law, natural law can be
invoked to criticize judicial decisions about what the law says but
not to criticize the best interpretation of the law itself. Some
scholars use natural law synonymously with natural justice or natural
right (Latin ius naturale), while others distinguish between natural
law and natural right.

Although natural law is often conflated with common law, the two are
distinct in that natural law is a view that certain rights or values
are inherent in or universally cognizable by virtue of human reason
or human nature, while common law is the legal tradition whereby
certain rights or values are legally cognizable by virtue of judicial
recognition or articulation.

As used by Thomas Hobbes in his treatises Leviathan and De Cive, natural
law is "a precept, or general rule, found out by reason, by which a man
is forbidden to do that which is destructive of his life, or takes away
the means of preserving the same; and to omit that by which he thinks it
may best be preserved."

According to Hobbes, there are nineteen Laws. The first two are expounded
in chapter XIV of Leviathan ("of the first and second natural laws; and of
contracts"); the others in chapter XV ("of other laws of nature").

The first Law of nature

The first Law of nature is that every man ought to endeavour peace, as far
as he has hope of obtaining it; and when he cannot obtain it, that he may
seek and use all helps and advantages of war.

The second Law of nature

The second Law of nature is that a man be willing, when others are so too,
as far forth, as for peace, and defence of himself he shall think it necessary,
to lay down this right to all things; and be contented with so much liberty
against other men, as he would allow other men against himself.

The third Law

The third Law is that men perform their covenants made. In this law of nature
consisteth the fountain and original of justice... when a covenant is made, then
to break it is unjust and the definition of injustice is no other than the not
performance of covenant. And whatsoever is not unjust is just.

The fourth Law

The fourth Law is that a man which receiveth benefit from another of mere grace,
endeavour that he which giveth it, have no reasonable cause to repent him of his
good will. Breach of this law is called ingratitude.

The fifth Law

The fifth Law is complaisance: that every man strive to accommodate himself to the
rest. The observers of this law may be called sociable; the contrary, stubborn,
insociable, froward, intractable.

The sixth Law

The sixth Law is that upon caution of the future time, a man ought to pardon the
offences past of them that repenting, desire it.

The seventh Law

The seventh Law is that in revenges, men look not at the greatness of the evil
past, but the greatness of the good to follow.

The eighth Law

The eighth Law is that no man by deed, word, countenance, or gesture, declare
hatred or contempt of another. The breach of which law is commonly called contumely.

The ninth Law

The ninth Law is that every man acknowledge another for his equal by nature. The
breach of this precept is pride.

The tenth law

The tenth law is that at the entrance into the conditions of peace, no man require
to reserve to himself any right, which he is not content should be reserved to every
one of the rest. The breach of this precept is arrogance, and observers of the precept
are called modest.

The eleventh law

The eleventh law is that if a man be trusted to judge between man and man, that he
deal equally between them.

The twelfth law

The twelfth law is that such things as cannot be divided, be enjoyed in common,
if it can be; and if the quantity of the thing permit, without stint; otherwise
proportionably to the number of them that have right.

The thirteenth law

The thirteenth law is the entire right, or else...the first possession (in the case
of alternating use), of a thing that can neither be divided nor enjoyed in common
should be determined by lottery.

The fourteenth law

The fourteenth law is that those things which cannot be enjoyed in common,
nor divided, ought to be adjudged to the first possessor; and in some cases
to the first born, as acquired by lot.

The fifteenth law

The fifteenth law is that all men that mediate peace be allowed safe conduct.

The sixteenth law

The sixteenth law is that they that are at controversie, submit their Right
to the judgement of an Arbitrator.

The seventeenth law

The seventeenth law is that no man is a fit Arbitrator in his own cause.

The eighteenth law

The eighteenth law is that no man should serve as a judge in a case if greater
profit, or honour, or pleasure apparently ariseth [for him] out of the victory
of one party, than of the other.

The nineteenth law

The nineteenth law is that in a disagreement of fact, the judge should not give
more weight to the testimony of one party than another, and absent other evidence,
should give credit to the testimony of other witnesses.

Hobbes's philosophy includes a frontal assault on the founding principles of the
earlier natural legal tradition,[75] disregarding the traditional association of
virtue with happiness,[76] and likewise re-defining "law" to remove any notion
of the promotion of the common good.

Cardinal virtues are acquired through reason applied to nature;
they are:

1. Prudence

2. Justice

3. Temperance

4. Fortitude

The theological virtues are:

1. Faith

2. Hope

3. Charity

Thomas Hobbes

Natural law




In law and ethics, universal law or universal principle refers as
concepts of legal legitimacy actions, whereby those principles and
rules for governing human beings' conduct which are most universal
in their acceptability, their applicability, translation, and
philosophical basis, are therefore considered to be most legitimate.

One type of Universal Law is the Law of Logic which prohibits logical
contradictions known as sophistry. Universal Law, the Law of Logic is
based upon the universal idea that logic is defined as that which is
not illogical; and, that which is illogical is that which involves a
logical contradiction, such as, attempting to assert that an apple
and no apple can exist at and in the same time and in the same place;
and, attempting to assert that A and not A can exist at and in the
same time and in the same place.

Universal law




Science includes many principles at least once thought to be laws of
nature: Newton's law of gravitation, his three laws of motion, the
ideal gas laws, Mendel's laws, the laws of supply and demand, and so
on. Other regularities important to science were not thought to have
this status. These include regularities that, unlike laws, were (or
still are) thought by scientists to stand in need of explanation. These
include the regularity of the ocean tides, the perihelion of Mercury's
orbit, the photoelectric effect, that the universe is expanding, and so

Laws of Nature




The Law of Attraction is just part of one of the 7 natural laws of
the Universe: the Law of Vibration. Of the 7 Laws, it may be the
most important in how our everyday lives play out, but all of the
laws are in effect whether we are aware of them or not. Knowing
what the 7 laws are and how they work can make a significant
difference in applying them to create the life you truly desire.

The 7 natural laws are in no particular order, but since the Law
of Attraction has been discussed so much in The Secret, we’ll
start with it.

1. The Law of Vibration

The Law of Vibration states that everything vibrates and nothing rests.
Vibrations of the same frequency resonate with each other, so like
attracts like energy. Everything is energy, including your thoughts.
Consistently focusing on a particular thought or idea attracts its
vibrational match. How to apply it: Focus on what you want instead of
what you don’t want.

2. The Law of Relativity

The Law of Relativity states that nothing is what it is until you relate
it to something. Point of view is determined by what the observer is
relating to. The nature, value, or quality of something can only be
measured in relation to another object. How to apply it: Practice relating
your situation to something worse than yours, and you will feel good about
where you are.

3. The Law of Cause and Effect

The Law of Cause and Effect states that for every action, there is an equal
and opposite reaction. Every cause has an effect, and every effect has a
cause. Be at cause for what you desire, and you will get the effect. All
thought is creative, so be careful what you wish for… you will get it. How
to apply it: Consistently think and act on what you desire to be effective
at getting it.

4. The Law of Polarity

The Law of Polarity states that everything has an opposite. Hot-Cold, Light-Dark,
Up-Down, Good-Bad. In the absense of that which you are not, that which you are…
is not. Polar opposites make existence possible. If what you are not didn’t coexist
with what you are, then what you are could not be. Therefore, do not condemn or
criticize what you are not or what you don’t want. How to apply it: Look for the
good in people and situations. What you focus on, you make bigger in your life.

5. The Law of Rythym

The Law of Rythym states that everything has a natural cycle. The tides go in and
back out, night follows day, and life regenerates itself. We all have good times
and bad times, but nothing stays the same. Change is constant. Knowing that “This
too shall pass” is great wisdom about life’s ebb and flow. How to apply it: When
you are on a down swing, know that things will get better. Think of the good times
that are coming.

6. The Law of Gestation

The Law of Gestation states that everything takes time to manifest. All things have
a beginning and grow into form as more energy is added to it. Thoughts are like
seeds planted in our fertile minds that bloom into our physical experience if we
have nourished them. How to apply it: Stay focused and know that your goals will
become reality when the time is right.

7. The Law of Transmutation

The Law of Transmutation states that energy moves in and out of physical form. Your
thoughts are creative energy. The more you focus your thinking on what you desire,
the more you harness your creative power to move that energy into results in your
life. The Universe organizes itself according to your thoughts. How to apply it:
Put your energy and effort, your thoughts and actions into attracting what you
desire, and you will surely attract the physical manifestation of that energy.

The 7 Natural Laws of the Universe are working with you and for you. Take charge
of your life by focusing on what you want, and by law, you will have it.

The 7 Natural Laws of the Universe




Aquinas on natural law

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy Entry 'Natural Law

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Law of Nature

The Laws of Nature

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Natural Law

Natural Law explained, evaluated and applied

Natural Law Theories

The Natural Law Tradition in Ethics