Grants are funds disbursed by one party (Grant Makers), often a Government Department, Corporation, Foundation or Trust, to a recipient, often (but not always) a nonprofit entity, educational institution, business or an individual.
In order to receive a grant, some form of "Grant Writing" often referred to as either a proposal or an application is usually required.
Most grants are made to fund a specific project and require some level of compliance and reporting. The Grant Writing process involves an applicant submitting a proposal (or submission) to a potential funder, either on the applicant's own initiative or in response to a Request for Proposal from the funder.
Other grants can be given to individuals, such as victims of natural disasters or individuals such as people who seek to open a small business.
Sometimes Grant Makers require Grant Seekers to have some form of tax-exempt status, be a registered nonprofit organization or a local government.
Tiered funding for a freeway are very large grants negotiated at Government policy level. However smaller grants may be provided by a government agency (e.g. municipal government).
Project related funding to governments, business, communities and individuals is often arranged by application either in writing or on-line.