DISTILL
DISTILLING
DISTILLATION




DISTILLATION

DISTILLED BEVERAGE

WHAT IS DISTILLATION?

DISTILLATION RELATED TOPICS

DISTILLATION LINKS



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SECTION 1



DISTILLATION




Distillation is a method of separating chemical substances based
on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture.

Distillation usually forms part of a larger chemical process, and
is thus referred to as a unit operation.

Commercially, distillation has a number of uses. It is used to
separate crude oil into more fractions for specific uses such as
transport, power generation and heating. Water is distilled to
remove impurities, such as salt from sea water. Air is distilled
to separate its components notably oxygen, nitrogen and argon for
industrial use . The use of distillation on fermented solutions
to produce distilled beverages with a higher alcohol content is
perhaps the oldest form of distillation, known since ancient times.



Distillation
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distillation



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SECTION 2



DISTILLED
BEVERAGE




A distilled beverage, spirit, liquor, hard liquor or hard alcohol is
an alcoholic beverage produced by distillation of grains, fruit, or
vegetables that have already gone through alcoholic fermentation.
This process purifies it and removes diluting components like water,
for the purpose of increasing its proportion of alcohol content
(commonly expressed as alcohol by volume, ABV). As distilled beverages
contain more alcohol, they are considered "harder" in North America,
the term hard liquor is used to distinguish distilled beverages from
undistilled ones.

As examples, this term does not include beverages such as beer, wine,
sake, and cider, as they are fermented but not distilled. These all
have a relatively low alcohol content, typically less than 15%. Brandy
is a spirit produced by the distillation of wine, and has an ABV of
over 35%. Other examples of distilled beverages include bourbon, vodka,
gin, rum, tequila, mezcal, whisky, scotch, and moonshine.



Distilled beverage
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distilled_beverage



Still
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Still




How to Distill
http://www.wikihow.com/Distill




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SECTION 3



WHAT
IS
DISTILLATION?




Understand the Principles of Distillation


Distillation is a widely used method for separating mixtures based
on differences in the conditions required to change the phase of
components of the mixture. To separate a mixture of liquids, the
liquid can be heated to force components, which have different
boiling points, into the gas phase. The gas is then condensed back
into liquid form and collected.

Repeating the process on the collected liquid to improve the purity
of the product is called double distillation. Although the term is
most commonly applied to liquids, the reverse process can be used to
separate gases by liquefying components using changes in temperature
and/or pressure.

A plant that performs distillation is called a distillery. The apparatus
used to perform distillation is called a still.



Uses of Distillation

Distillation is used for many commercial processes, such as the production
of gasoline, distilled water, xylene, alcohol, paraffin, kerosene, and many
other liquids. Gas may be liquefied and separate. For example: nitrogen,
oxygen, and argon are distilled from air.



Types of Distillation

Types of distillation include simple distillation, fractional distillation
(different volatile 'fractions' are collected as they are produced), and
destructive distillation (usually, a material is heated so that it decomposes
into compounds for collection).



Simple Distillation

Simple distillation may be used when the boiling points of two liquids are
significantly different from each other or to separate liquids from solids
or nonvolatile components. In simple distillation, a mixture is heated to
change the most volatile component from a liquid into vapor.

The vapor rises and passes into a condenser. Usually, the condenser is cooled
(e.g., by running cold water around it) to promote condensation of the vapor,
which is collected.



Steam Distillation

Steam distillation is used to separate heat-sensitive components. Steam is
added to the mixture, causing some of it to vaporize. This vapor is cooled
and condensed into two liquid fractions. Sometimes the fractions are
collected separately, or they may have different density values, so they
separate on their own. An example is steam distillation of flowers to yield
essential oil and a water-based distillate.



Fractional Distillation

Fractional distillation is used when the boiling points of the components
of a mixture are close to each other, as determined using Raoult's law. A
fractionating column is used to separate the components used a series of
distillations called rectification. In fractional distillation, a mixture
is heated so vapor rises and enters the fractionating column. As the vapor
cools, it condenses on the packing material of the column. The heat of rising
vapor causes this liquid to vaporize again, moving it along the column and
eventually yielding a higher purity sample of the more volatile component of
the mixture.



Vacuum Distillation

Vacuum distillation is used to separate components that have high boiling
points. Lowering the pressure of the apparatus also lowers boiling points.
Otherwise, the process is similar to other forms of distillation. Vacuum
distillation is particularly useful when the normal boiling point exceeds
the decomposition temperature of a compound.



What Is Distillation?
https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-distillation-601964



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SECTION 4



DISTILLATION
RELATED
TOPICS




What Is Distilled Water?
https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-distilled-water-609411

What You Need to Know About Fractional Distillation
https://www.thoughtco.com/definition-of-fractional-distillation-604421

Does Alcohol Added During the Cooking Process Really Boil Away?
https://www.thoughtco.com/boiling-point-of-alcohol-608491

Distill
https://www.thoughtco.com/distill

Distillate Definition
https://www.thoughtco.com/definition-of-distillate-604718" data-ordinal="6

What Is Steam Distillation?
https://www.thoughtco.com/definition-of-steam-distillation-605690

Is It Okay To Drink Distilled Water?
https://www.thoughtco.com/can-you-drink-distilled-water-609403

How To Purify Alcohol Using Distillation
https://www.thoughtco.com/how-to-purify-alcohol-using-distillation-608263

How To Set Up Distillation Apparatus
https://www.thoughtco.com/how-to-set-up-distillation-apparatus-606046

What Is the Boiling Point of Milk?
https://www.thoughtco.com/boiling-point-of-milk-607369

What Is a Mixture in Science? Definition and Examples
https://www.thoughtco.com/mixture-definition-chemistry-glossary-606374

The Easy Way to Make Distilled Water at Home
https://www.thoughtco.com/making-distilled-water-609427

What Is an Alloy? Definition, Examples, and Uses
https://www.thoughtco.com/alloy-definition-examples-and-uses-606371

Here's How To Separate Salt and Sand
https://www.thoughtco.com/separating-salt-and-sand-4055888

What Boiling Point Elevation Is and How It Works
https://www.thoughtco.com/understanding-boiling-point-elevation-609180



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SECTION 5



DISTILL
DISTILLING
DISTILLATION
LINKS




Alcohol distillation
http://www.agcom.purdue.edu/

American Still Company
https://www.americanstill.net/

American Distilling Institute
http://www.distilling.com/

Answerbag.com
http://www.answerbag.com/

APSnet Education Center
http://www.apsnet.org/

BIOONE Online Journals
http://www.bioone.org/

Chemical Engineering Research Information Center
http://www.cheric.org/

Distillation
https://melscience.com/en/experiments/distillation/

Distillation
http://www.chemhelper.com/distillation.html

Distillation Chemical Process
https://www.britannica.com/science/distillation

Distillation Columns
http://encyclopedia.che.engin.umich.edu/Pages/SeparationsChemical/DistillationColumns/DistillationColumns.html

Distilling Water
http://www.education.com/science-fair/article/salt-water-distillation/

Essential and Fragrance Oils Distillation
http://www.oilganic.com/essential-oils-distillation.htm/

Extractive Distillation
http://www.cheresources.com/extrdist.shtml/



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Fractional Distillation
http://academics.wellesley.edu/Chemistry/chem211lab/Orgo_Lab_Manual/Appendix/Techniques/FractionalDistill/fractional_distill.html

Home Distiller
http://homedistiller.org/

How to Distill Water
http://momprepares.com/prepper-tip-how-to-distill-water/

How To Turn Salt Water Into Drinking Water
http://www.survivopedia.com/how-to-turn-salt-water-into-drinking-water/#

Natural Ingredient Resource Center
http://www.naturalingredient.org/

NIROINC
http://www.niroinc.com/

Organic Consumers Association
http://www.organicconsumers.org/

Perform simple distillation in the chemistry lab
https://science.wonderhowto.com/how-to/perform-simple-distillation-chemistry-lab-259797/

The Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation
http://www.rirdc.gov.au/

Simple & Fractional Distillation
http://www.einsten.net/pdf/8200256544.pdf

Types of Stills
http://homedistiller.org/

Types of Stills
http://learntomoonshine.com/category/types-of-stills

What Are the Uses of Distillation in Industry?
http://www.ehow.com/about_5941994_uses-distillation-industry_.html

What Is Distillation?
http://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-distillation-definition-process-apparatus.html



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In My Mind Today
http://inmymindtoday.com/




International Society for Ethnopharmacology
http://www.ethnopharmacology.org/




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