WATER
PURIFY
PURIFICATION




FILTERING VS PURIFYING

WATER QUALITY

WATER PURIFICATION

TONY FLYNN FILTERS

BLEACH TREATMENT

BOILING TREATMENT

DISTILLATION

RELATED LINKS

WATER POLLUTION

PURIFYING LINKS



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SECTION 1



FILTERING
VS
PURIFYING




So what's the difference between
filtering and purifying water?


Filtering is the removal all "visual" particles
and matter from the water such as dirt, leaves,
critters, etc, so it can be properly purified
and then safely consumed.

Purifying is the removal of all "invisible"
bacteria, germs and other harmful elements
from the water so it can be safely consumed.




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SECTION 2



WATER
QUALITY




Water quality is the physical, chemical
biological characteristics of water in
relationship to a set of standards.

Water quality standards are created for
different types of water bodies and water
body locations per desired uses.

The primary uses considered for such
characterization are parameters which
relate to drinking water, safety of
human contact, and for health of
ecosystems.

The methods of hydrometry are used to
quantify water characteristics.



Water quality
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_quality



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SECTION 3



WATER
PURIFICATION




Water purification is the process of
removing contaminants from a raw water
source. The goal is to produce water
for a specific purpose with a treatment
profile designed to limit the inclusion
of specific materials; most water is
purified for human consumption,
(drinking water).

Water purification may also be designed
for a variety of other purposes, including
to meet the requirements of medical,
pharmacology, chemical and industrial
applications.




Methods include, but
are not limited to:


ultraviolet light,

filtration,

water softening,

reverse osmosis,

ultrafiltration,

deionization,

powdered activated
carbon treatment.




Water purification
may remove:



particulate sand;

suspended particles of
organic material;

parasites,

Giardia;

Cryptosporidium;

bacteria;

algae;

virus;

fungi.



Minerals:

calcium,
silica,
magnesium.



Toxic metals:

lead,
copper,
chromium .


Some purification may be elective in
the purification process, including
smell (hydrogen sulfide remediation),
taste, (mineral extraction), and
appearance (iron incapsulation).



Water purification
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_purification


Water purification
http://www.appropedia.org/Category:Water_purification



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SECTION 4



TONY
FLYNN
FILTERS




A handful of clay, yesterday’s coffee grounds
and some cow manure are the simple ingredients
that could bring clean drinking water to
developing countries around the globe.

An innovative new technology, developed by ANU
materials scientist Mr Tony Flynn, allows water
filters to be made from commonly available
materials and fired on the ground using manure,
without the need for a kiln. The filters have
been shown to remove common pathogens including
E-coli. Unlike other water filtering devices,
they are simple and inexpensive to make.

“They are very simple to explain and demonstrate
and can be made by anyone, anywhere. They don’t
require any western technology. All you need is
terracotta clay, a compliant cow and a match,”
said Mr Flynn.

“Everyone has a right to clean water, these filters
have the potential to enable anyone in the world to
drink water safely.”



Tim Winkler
Media Liaison
Tel: 02 6125 5001 / 0416 249 231
Email: Tim.Winkler@anu.edu.au




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SECTION 5



BLEACH
TREATMENT




Filter the water if it looks cloudy or dirty.
Pouring the water through a coffee filter,
cloth such as a bandanna, will help, but it
will not remove organisms.


Add two drops of household bleach per quart
or per liter for clean looking water. Add
four drops per quart or per liter for dirty
water (16 drops of bleach per gallon of water).
Bleach is a widely accepted method of emergency
water disinfection, and is recommended by many
agencies. The dosages and instructions vary
somewhat though.


Stir or agitate water to disperse the bleach.


Wait 30 minutes and repeats the dosages if there
is NOT a slight chlorine odor (you should notice
a slight chlorine smell).
This odor can be lessened by pouring the water
between two containers a couple of times.




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SECTION 6



BOILING
TREATMENT




Bring water to a rolling boil, and keep it
at a rolling boil for the time specified
in the chart below. At sea level, water
must boil for 5 minutes to be safe. Roughly,
for every 500 feet increase in altitude
drops the temperature of boiling one degree
Fahrenheit so you must boil it one minute
longer to achieve the safe level of heat.
This will kill harmful organisms.


Skim off any residue on the top, or pour
into a container with a tap at the bottom
to dispense the water.




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SECTION 7



WATER
DISTILLATION




Purchase a 'still' from a camping
supplies or adventure store.
This process is typically used to
distill ground water, not contaminated
water.

Also, this method may be altered to
distill water when the ground is not
moist.




HOWTO DISTILL WATER:


1.Dig a foot-deep hole in the ground
that is at least 6 inches wide.

2.Place a small container in the bottom
to catch the water.

3.Cover the hole with plastic, black if
possible, but any color will work.

4.Place stones on the edges to secure
the plastic, making it semi-tight.

5.Place a small stone so that the center
is lower than the rest, and it is over
the cup.

6.Collect the water after a period of time.
Water will evaporate from the ground and
condense on the plastic.
This purified water will the drip into the
collection container in the center.
Most organism are unable to cling to water
that evaporates, but this isn't a guaranteed
method of purifying water.




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SECTION 8



RELATED
WATER
LINKS




How to Turn Salt Water
Into Drinking Water

http://www.wikihow.com/Turn-Salt-Water-Into-Drinking-Water



How to Drink
More Water Every Day

http://www.wikihow.com/Drink-More-Water-Every-Day



How to Choose the Best
Method of Water Treatment

http://www.wikihow.com/Choose-the-Best-Method-of-Water-Treatment



HOW TO
SAVE WATER

http://www.wikihow.com/Save-Water



HOW TO
PURIFY WATER

http://www.wikihow.com/Purify-Water



OUTDOOR
SAFETY

http://www.wikihow.com/Category:Outdoor-Safety




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SECTION 9



WATER
POLLUTION




Most water pollution is invisible. Trash
in our waterways may look unsightly, but
the really serious problems come from
poisons, very fine sediments, and excess
nutrients.

Water runs downhill. If humans put it on
the land, or in the air, it will likely
end up in the water eventually.

The worst problems with pollution in this
country come not from industrial discharge
pipes, but from "non-point sources" such
as agricultural and urban runoff, and
contaminated precipitation



WATER POLLUTION LESSONS
http://www.sciencenetlinks.com/lessons.cfm?DocID=275



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SECTION 10



WATER
PURIFY
FILTERS
LINKS




AFRI GADGET
http://www.afrigadget.com/

Alpine Survival Group
http://www.alpinesurvival.com/

American Water Resources Association
http://www.awra.org/

THE BACKPACKER
http://www.thebackpacker.com/

Beaches 911
http://www.beaches911.org/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
http://www.cdc.gov/

Ecomall
http://www.ecomall.com/

FILTER WATER
http://www.filterwater.com.au/

Global Water Quality online database
http://www.gemstat.org/



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HOME WATER PURIFIERS AND FILTERS
http://www.home-water-purifiers-and-filters.com/

INSPIRED LIVING
http://www.inspiredliving.com/

International Food Policy Research Institute
http://www.ifpri.org

MOTHER EARTH NEWS
http://www.motherearthnews.com/

National Safety Foundation
http://www.nsf.org/

Natural Guide
http://www.thenaturalguide.com/pure-water.htm

NETWORK EARTH
http://www.networkearth.org/

Nutrient Net
http://www.nutrientnet.org/



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Oasis Design
http://www.oasisdesign.net/water/storage/

The Ranger's Digest
http://www.therangerdigest.com/

Safe Water for International Travelers
http://www.safewateronline.com/

Science Net Links
http://www.sciencenetlinks.com/

UNEP Global Environmental Monitoring System (GEMS)
http://www.gemswater.org/

Urban Survival.com
http://www.urbansurvival.com/

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
http://www.epa.gov/

U.S. National Agricultural Library
http://www.nal.usda.gov/

Water Quality and Health Council
http://www.waterandhealth.org/

The Water Tips
http://www.thewatertips.com/

World Changing
http://www.worldchanging.com/

World Health Organisation
http://www.who.int/



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