TIME
MANAGEMENT




Time management contains one great PARADOX:
No one has enough, YET everyone has all there is.

This paradox is useful as a reminder that
time itself is not the problem, the problem
is how we utilize time.




TIME MANAGEMENT

TIME MANAGEMENT/RELATED CONCEPTS

PERSONAL TIME MANAGEMENT

TASK LIST ORGANIZATION

WHAT ARE TIME MANAGEMENT SKILLS?

TIME MANAGEMENT TIPS

COMMON TIME MANAGEMENT MISTAKES

TIME MANAGEMENT ADVICE LINKS

TIME MANAGEMENT LINKS



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SECTION 1



TIME
MANAGEMENT




Time management is the act or process of planning and
exercising conscious control over the amount of time
spent on specific activities, especially to increase
effectiveness, efficiency or productivity.

Time management may be aided by a range of skills, tools,
and techniques used to manage time when accomplishing
specific tasks, projects and goals complying with a due
date.



This set encompasses a wide scope
of activities, and these include:

planning,

allocating,

setting goals,

delegation,

analysis of time spent,

monitoring,

organizing,

scheduling,

prioritizing.



Initially, time management referred to just business
or work activities, but eventually the term broadened
to include personal activities as well.

A time management system is a designed combination of
processes, tools, techniques, and methods. Usually time
management is a necessity in any project development as
it determines the project completion time and scope.




Categorization



Stephen R. Covey has offered a categorization
scheme for the hundreds of time management
approaches that they reviewed:



First generation:

reminders based on clocks and watches, but with
computer implementation possible; can be used to
alert a person when a task is to be done.



Second generation:

planning and preparation based on calendar and
appointment books; includes setting goals.



Third generation:

planning, prioritizing, controlling (using a
personal organizer, other paper-based objects,
or computer or PDA-based systems) activities
on a daily basis.

This approach implies spending some time in
clarifying values and priorities.



Fourth generation:

being efficient and proactive using any of
the above tools; places goals and roles as
the controlling element of the system and
favors importance over urgency.




Time management literature can be paraphrased
as follows:


"Get Organized" - paperwork and task triage

"Protect Your Time" - insulate, isolate, delegate

"Set gravitational goals" - that attract actions
automatically

"Achieve through Goal management Goal Focus"
- motivational emphasis

"Work in Priority Order" - set goals and prioritize

"Use Magical Tools to Get More Out of Your Time"
- depends on when written

"Master the Skills of Time Management"

"Go with the Flow" - natural rhythms,
Eastern philosophy

"Recover from Bad Time Habits" - recovery
from underlying psychological problems,
e.g. procrastination




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SECTION 2



TIME
MANAGEMENT
AND
RELATED
CONCEPTS




Time management has been considered as subsets of
different concepts such as:



Project management.

Time Management can be considered as a project management
subset and is more commonly known as project planning and
project scheduling.


Time Management has also been identified as one of the core
functions identified in project management.


Attention management:

Attention Management relates to the management of cognitive
resources, and in particular the time that humans allocate
their mind (and organizations the minds of their employees)
to conduct some activities.



Personal knowledge management:

(Personal time management).



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SECTION 3



PERSONAL
TIME
MANAGEMENT




Time management strategies are often associated with
the recommendation to set personal goals. These goals
are recorded and may be broken down into a project,
an action plan, or a simple task list.

For individual tasks or for goals, an importance rating
may be established, deadlines may be set, and priorities
assigned. This process results in a plan with a task list
or a schedule or calendar of activities.

Authors may recommend a daily, weekly, monthly or other
planning periods associated with different scope of
planning or review. This is done in various ways, as
follows.

Time management also covers how to eliminate tasks that
don't provide the individual or organization value.

Task list A task list (also to-do list or things-to-do)
is a list of tasks to be completed, such as chores or
steps toward completing a project. It is an inventory
tool which serves as an alternative or supplement to
memory.

Task lists are used in self-management, grocery lists,
business management, project management, and software
development. It may involve more than one list.

When one of the items on a task list is accomplished,
the task is checked or crossed off. The traditional
method is to write these on a piece of paper with a
pen or pencil, usually on a note pad or clip-board.


Writer Julie Morgenstern suggests "do's and don'ts"
of time management that include:

Map out everything that is important, by making a
task list

Create "an oasis of time" for one to control

Say "No"

Set priorities

Don't drop everything

Don't think a critical task will get done in one's
spare time.


Numerous digital equivalents are now available,
including PIM (Personal information management)
applications and most PDAs.

There are also several web-based task list
applications, many of which are free.




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SECTION 4



TASK
LIST
ORGANIZATION




Task lists are often tiered. The simplest
tiered system includes a general to-do list
(or task-holding file) to record all the
tasks the person needs to accomplish, and a
daily to-do list which is created each day
by transferring tasks from the general
to-do list.



Task lists are often prioritized:


An early advocate of "ABC" prioritization was
Alan Lakein. In his system "A" items were the
most important


("A-1" the most important within that group),

"B" next most important,

"C" least important.

A particular method of applying the ABC method assigns

"A" to tasks to be done within a day,

"B" a week,

"C" a month.

To prioritize a daily task list, one either records the
tasks in the order of highest priority, or assigns them
a number after they are listed

("1" for highest priority,

"2" for second highest priority, etc.) which indicates
in which order to execute the tasks. The latter method
is generally faster, allowing the tasks to be recorded
more quickly.


Another way of prioritizing compulsory tasks

(group A) is to put the most unpleasant one first.
When itís done, the rest of the list feels easier.

Groups B and C can benefit from the same idea, but
instead of doing the first task (which is the most
unpleasant) right away, it gives motivation to do
other tasks from the list to avoid the first one.

A completely different approach which argues against
prioritising altogether was put forward by British
author Mark Forster in his book "Do It Tomorrow and
Other Secrets of Time Management". This is based on
the idea of operating "closed" to-do lists, instead
of the traditional "open" to-do list. He argues that
the traditional never-ending to-do lists virtually
guarantees that some of your work will be left undone.

This approach advocates getting all your work done,
every day, and if you are unable to achieve it helps
you diagnose where you are going wrong and what needs
to change.



Time management
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_management



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SECTION 5



WHAT
ARE
TIME
MANAGEMENT
SKILLS?




A time management skill is a technique for managing
your personal or business life. It shifts all tasks
to a designated time, person or place and encompasses
a broad range of things such as:



setting goals,

planning and scheduling,

prioritizing,

delegating,

decision making.



Integrating time management skills gives you the
ability to control your workload in your business
and your personal life.



Setting Goals


Setting goals is an important component of time
management. Setting goals is a way to implement
steps to achieve the goal. Prepare, analyze and
organize how to overcome hurdles that could
prevent you from accomplishing your goal. Setting
goals does not control you, but it improves your
focus, provides clarity and gives you a purpose.



Planning and Scheduling

Planning and scheduling is how you effectively meet
your goals. The two go hand in hand. Planning should
include what it will take to achieve your goal,
scheduling it and execution.



Prioritizing

Prioritizing should be the first thing you should
consider when planning and scheduling. Some people
find it easier to complete tasks by completing the
biggest job to the smallest or the easiest to the
most difficult; some like to complete easy tasks
first, then tackle the hardest. Everyone has his
own method. Whatever works for you is how you
should schedule it. There is no certain way to
prioritize; you can make a list, organize it and
then reorganize based on resources available.



Decision Making

Making decisions is one of the hardest tasks for
many people. You should weigh the outcome of a
decision, make the choice and then move on. Do
not dwell on a decision for days that you are not
going to change anyway. Good decision-making
skills are what make a good manager or business
owner.



Delegating

People make up reasons not to delegate. Usually
the reasons are unfounded and prevent them from
accomplishing their goal. When you delegate a
responsibility, it will free you up to move on
to more important tasks. Delegating should
consist of assigning the task, not how to
accomplish the task.



What Are Time Management Skills?
http://www.ehow.com/about_5347472_time-management-skills.html



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SECTION 6



TIME
MANAGEMENT
TIPS
TO
REDUCE
STRESS
AND
IMPROVE
PRODUCTIVITY




Time management:

Tips to reduce stress and improve productivity



Effective time management is a primary means to a
less stressful life. These practices can help you
reduce your stress and reclaim your personal life.


Do you find yourself overwhelmed by the number and
complexity of projects you have that need to be
completed at work each day? Do you often feel the
day flies by without your devoting the necessary
attention to each assignment because other tasks
keep landing on your desk, co-workers interrupt
you with questions or you can't get it all
organized?


You probably know that effective time management
will help you get more done each day. It has
important health benefits, too. By managing your
time more wisely, you can minimize stress and
improve your quality of life.

But how do you get back on track when organizational
skills don't come naturally? To get started, choose
one of these strategies, try it for two to four weeks
and see if it helps. If it does, consider adding
another one. If not, try a different one.

Plan each day.

Planning your day can help you accomplish more and
feel more in control of your life. Write a to-do
list, putting the most important tasks at the top.
Keep a schedule of your daily activities to minimize
conflicts and last-minute rushes.



Prioritize your tasks.

Time-consuming but relatively unimportant tasks
can consume a lot of your day. Prioritizing tasks
will ensure that you spend your time and energy
on those that are truly important to you.



Say no to nonessential tasks.

Consider your goals and schedule before agreeing to
take on additional work.



Delegate.

Take a look at your to-do list and consider what
you can pass on to someone else.



Take the time you need to do a quality job.

Doing work right the first time may take more
time upfront, but errors usually result in time
spent making corrections, which takes more time
overall.



Break large, time-consuming tasks
into smaller tasks.


Work on them a few minutes at a time until you get
them all done.



Practice the 10-minute rule.

Work on a dreaded task for 10 minutes each day.
Once you get started, you may find you can finish
it.



Evaluate how you're spending your time.

Keep a diary of everything you do for three days to
determine how you're spending your time. Look for
time that can be used more wisely. For example,
could you take a bus or train to work and use the
commute to catch up on reading? If so, you could
free up some time to exercise or spend with family
or friends.



Limit distractions.

Block out time on your calendar for big projects.
During that time, close your door and turn off
your phone, pager and e-mail.



Get plenty of sleep, have a healthy
diet and exercise regularly.


A healthy lifestyle can improve your focus and
concentration, which will help improve your
efficiency so that you can complete your work
in less time.



Take a time management course.

If your employer offers continuing education, take
a time management class. If your workplace doesn't
have one, find out if a local community college,
university or community education program does.



Take a break when needed.

Too much stress can derail your attempts at getting
organized. When you need a break, take one. Take a
walk. Do some quick stretches at your workstation.
Take a day of vacation to rest and re-energize.



Ask for professional help

If you're too frazzled to think about trying any of
these tips, it's time to ask for help. Does your
life feel totally out of control? If so, contact your
employee assistance program (EAP) at your workplace
for assistance, or discuss your situation with your
doctor.



Time management:
Tips to reduce stress and improve productivity

http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/time-?management/WL00048



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SECTION 7



COMMON
TIME
MANAGEMENT
MISTAKES




10 Common Time Management Mistakes
Avoiding Common Pitfalls



How well do you manage your time? If you're like
many people, your answer may not be completely
positive!

Perhaps you feel overloaded, and you often have to
work late to hit your deadlines. Or maybe your days
seem to go from one crisis to another, and this is
stressful and demoralizing.

Many of us know that we could be managing our time
more effectively; but it can be difficult to identify
the mistakes that we're making, and to know how we
could improve.


Mistake #1. Failing to Keep a To-Do List

Mistake #2. Not Setting Personal Goals

Mistake #3. Not Prioritizing

Mistake #4. Failing to Manage Distractions

Mistake #5. Procrastination

Mistake #6. Taking on too Much

Mistake #7. Thriving on "Busy"

Mistake #8. Multitasking

Mistake #9. Not Taking Breaks

Mistake #10. Ineffectively Scheduling Tasks



10 Common Time Management Mistakes
http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/time-management-mistakes.htm



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SECTION 8



TIME
MANAGEMENT
ADVICE
LINKS




Leadership Skills
http://www.mindtools.com/pages/main/newMN_LDR.htm

Team Management
http://www.mindtools.com/pages/main/newMN_TMM.htm

Strategy Tools
http://www.mindtools.com/pages/main/newMN_STR.htm

Problem Solving
http://www.mindtools.com/pages/main/newMN_TMC.htm

Decision Making
http://www.mindtools.com/pages/main/newMN_TED.htm

Project Management
http://www.mindtools.com/pages/main/newMN_PPM.htm

Time Management
http://www.mindtools.com/pages/main/newMN_HTE.htm

Stress Management
http://www.mindtools.com/pages/main/newMN_TCS.htm

Communication Skills
http://www.mindtools.com/page8.html

Creativity Tools
http://www.mindtools.com/pages/main/newMN_CT.htm

Information Skills
http://www.mindtools.com/pages/main/newMN_ISS.htm

Career Skills
http://www.mindtools.com/pages/main/newMN_CDV.htm



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SECTION 9



TIME
MANAGEMENT
LINKS




Personal time management and goal setting guide
http://www.time-management-guide.com

Time Management
http://www.rescuetime.com

Time Management
http://www.timethoughts.com/time-?management.htm

Time Management
http://www.time-management-solutions.com

Time Management
http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/?time-management

Time Management Games
http://www.shockwave.com/online/time-?management-games.jsp

Time Management Tips
http://www.timemanagement.com

What is Time Management?
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-time-?management.htm



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