THE
SCIENCES




SCIENCE

HISTORY OF SCIENCE

SCIENTIFIC METHOD

SCIENTIFIC METHOD STEPS

MATHEMATICS

HYPOTHESIS

THEORY

PHYSICAL SCIENTIFIC LAW

PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE

GOALS OF SCIENCE

SCIENCE EDUCATION

NATURAL SCIENCE

SOCIAL SCIENCE

SCIENCE EXPERIMENTS

SCIENCE LINKS

SCIENCE RESOURCES



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SECTION 1



SCIENCE




Science:
Latin scientia - knowledge,
refers to the system of acquiring knowledge
based on empiricism, experimentation, and
methodological naturalism.

The term science also refers to the organized
body of knowledge humans have gained by such
research.

Most scientists maintain that scientific
investigation must adhere to the scientific
method, a process for evaluating empirical
knowledge which explains observable events
in nature as a result of natural causes,
rejecting supernatural notions.

Less formally, the word science often
describes any systematic field of study
or the knowledge gained from it.
Particular specialized studies that make
use of empirical methods are often referred
to as sciences as well.

Fields of science are commonly
classified along two major lines:

1. Natural sciences,
the study of the natural phenomena
including biology;

2. Social sciences,
the systematic study of human
behavior and society.

Science as defined above is sometimes termed
pure science to differentiate it from applied
science, the application of research to human
needs.

Beginning in the "Middle ages" and until the
"Age of Enlightenment," the word science meant
any systematic or exact, recorded knowledge.
Science therefore had the same sort of very
broad meaning that philosophy had at that time.

It should be noted that in some languages, the
word corresponding to "science" still carries
this meaning.



SCIENCE
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Science



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SECTION 1A



HISTORY
OF
SCIENCE




Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical
knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global
community of researchers making use of scientific methods,
which emphasize the observation, experimentation and the
explanation of real world phenomena. Given the dual status
of science as objective knowledge and as a human construct,
good historiography of science draws on the historical
methods of both intellectual history and social history.

Tracing the exact origins of modern science is difficult.
This is due in large part to the scant documentary and
physical evidence of ancient investigations of nature.



HISTORY OF SCIENCE
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_science



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SECTION 2



THE
SCIENTIFIC
METHOD



BR>The scientific method seeks to explain the
complexities of nature in a replicable way,
and to use these explanations to make useful
predictions. It provides an objective process
to find solutions to problems in a number of
scientific and technological fields.

Often scientists have a preference for one
outcome over another, and scientists are
conscientious that it is important that
this preference does not bias their
interpretation.

A strict following of the scientific method
attempts to minimize the influence of a
scientist's bias on the outcome of an
experiment.

This can be achieved by correct experimental
design, and a thorough peer review of the
experimental results as well as conclusions
of a study.




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SECTION 3



STEPS
OF THE
SCIENTIFIC
METHOD




1. OBSERVING

2. QUESTIONING

3. STATING A HYPOTHESIS

4. DESIGNING AN EXPERIMENT TO
TEST THE HYPOTHESIS

5. FORMULATING A THEORY




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SECTION 4



MATHEMATICS




Mathematics is sometimes classified in a third
grouping, called formal science, having both
similarities and differences with the natural
and social sciences.

It is similar to other disciplines in that it
involves a careful, systematic study of an area
of knowledge; it is different because of its
method of verifying its knowledge, using
a-priori rather than empirical methods.

Mathematics as a whole is vital to the sciences;
indeed, major advances in mathematics have often
led to critical advances in the physical and
biological sciences. Certain mathematical
approaches are indispensable for the formation
of hypotheses, theories, and laws, both in
discovering and describing how things work
(natural sciences) and how people think and
act (social sciences).




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SECTION 5



A
HYPOTHESIS




A hypothesis is a contention that
has been neither well supported
nor yet ruled out by experiment.




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SECTION 6



A
THEORY




A theory, in the context of science,
is a logically self-consistent model
or framework for describing the
behavior of certain natural phenomena.




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SECTION 7



PHYSICAL
LAW
SCIENTIFIC
LAW




A physical law, scientific law, or a law of
nature is a scientific generalization based
on empirical observations of physical behavior,
or simply a mathematical (or logical) definition.

Empirical laws are typically conclusions based on
repeated scientific experiments over many years,
and which have become accepted universally within
the scientific community.




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SECTION 8



THE
PHILOSOPHY
OF
SCIENCE




The philosophy of science seeks to understand
the nature and justification of scientific
knowledge and its ethical implications.

It has proven difficult to provide a definitive
account of the scientific method that can
decisively serve to distinguish science from
non-science.

Thus there are legitimate arguments about
exactly where the borders are. There is
nonetheless a set of core precepts that
have broad consensus among published
philosophers of science and within the
scientific community at large.




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SECTION 9



THE
GOAL
OF
SCIENCE




The underlying goal or purpose of science to
society and individuals is to produce useful
models of reality. To achieve this, one can
form hypotheses based on observations that
they make in the world.

By analysing a number of related hypotheses,
scientists can form general theories. These
theories benefit society or human individuals
who make use of them.




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SECTION 10



SCIENCE
EDUCATION




Science education aims at increasing common
knowledge about science and widening social
awareness of scientific findings and issues.

In developed countries, the process of learning
science begins early in life for many people;
school students start learning about science as
soon as they acquire basic language skills and
science is often an essential part of curriculum.




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SECTION 11



NATURAL
SCIENCE




In science, natural science is the rational
study of the universe via rules or laws of
natural order. The term natural science is
also used to distinguish those fields that
use the scientific method to study nature
from the social sciences, which use the
scientific method to study human behavior,
and from the formal sciences, such as
mathematics and logic, which use a
different methodology.

Natural sciences form the basis for the
applied sciences. Together, the natural
and applied sciences are distinguished
from the social sciences on the one hand,
and from the humanities, theology and the
arts on the other.

Mathematics, statistics and computer science
are not considered natural sciences, but
provide many tools and frameworks used within
the natural sciences.



NATURAL SCIENCE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_science



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SECTION 12



SOCIAL
SCIENCES




The social sciences are a group of academic
disciplines that study human aspects of the
world.

They diverge from the arts and humanities in
that the social sciences tend to emphasize
the use of the scientific method in the study
of humanity, including quantitative and
qualitative methods.



SOCIAL SCIENCE
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_science/



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SECTION 13



EXPERIMENTS




In scientific research, an experiment
(Latin: ex- periri, "to try out")
is a method of investigating causal
relationships among variables.

An experiment is a cornerstone of the
empirical approach to acquiring data
about the world and is used in both
natural sciences and social sciences.

An experiment can be used to help solve
practical problems and to support or
negate theoretical assumptions.



EXPERIMENTS
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Experiments



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SECTION 14



SCIENCE
LINKS




ADVANCE SCIENCE SERVING SOCIETY
http://www.aaas.org/

American Association for the Advancement of Science
http://www.aaas.org/

Blackwell Synergy
http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/

BRAIN POP
http://www.brainpop.com/

CHEMISTRY COACH
http://www.chemistrycoach.com/

CHEMTUTEOR
http://www.chemtutor.com/

The CNRS History of Science and Technology Research Center
http://www.crhst.cnrs.fr

Description of weird experiments
http://www.madsciencebook.com



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Experiland
http://www.experiland.com/

Experimental Design
http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/desexper.htm

EVERYTHINGBIO
http://www.everythingbio.com/

Exploratorium
http://www.exploratorium.edu/

History of Science Society ("HSS")
http://www.hssonline.org/

INFO PLEASE
http://www.infoplease.com/

The Institute and Museum of the History of Science in Florence, Italy
http://www.imss.fi.it/

LEARN 4 GOOD
http://www.learn4good.com/

Lessons In Electric Circuits
http://www.electriccircuits.net/book,6,experiments.aspx



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Live Science.com
http://www.livescience.com/

Mad Sci Net
http://www.madsci.org/

Nature Publishing Group
http://www.nature.com/

NEWTON
http://www.newton.dep.anl.gov/

NSTA - National Science Teachers Association
http://www.nsta.org/

New Scientist
http://www.newscientist.com/

Office of Science
http://www.sc.doe.gov/



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Popular Science
http://www.popsci.com/

Sandlot Science.com
http://www.sandlotscience.com/

Sci Central
http://www.scicentral.com/

THE SCIENCE CLUB
http://scienceclub.org/

Science Daily
http://www.sciencedaily.com/

Science Experiments for Kids
http://www.ScienceCastle.com/

SCIENCE FRIDAY
http://www.sciencefriday.com/

SCIENCE.GOV
http://www.science.gov/



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SCIENCE MADE SIMPLE
http://www.sciencemadesimple.com/

SCIENCE MAGAZINE
http://www.sciencemag.org/

SCIENCE MASTER
http://www.sciencemaster.com/

Science Net Links
http://www.sciencenetlinks.com/

SCIENCE NEWS FOR KIDS
http://www.sciencenewsforkids.org/

SCIENCE NEWS
http://www.sciencenews.org/

Science Online
http://www.scienceonline.org/



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SCIENCE PROJECT
http://www.scienceproject.com/

Science and technology information from Scientific American
http://www.sciam.com/

Scirus - for scientific information
http://www.scirus.com/

THOMSON BIOSIS
http://www.biosis.org/

Try Science
http://www.tryscience.org/

The Vega Science Trust
http://www.vega.org.uk/

WORLDWIDE SCHOOL
http://www.worldwideschool.org/



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SECTION 15



SCIENCE
RESOURCES




Analysis of covariance
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analysis_of_covariance

Analysis of variance (Anova)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analysis_of_variance

Best linear unbiased prediction
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Best_linear_unbiased_prediction

Chi-square distribution
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chi-square_distribution

Cochran's theorem
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cochran%27s_theorem

Concept Development and Experimentation
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concept_Development_and_Experimentation

Design of experiments
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Design_of_experiments

Experimental physics
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Experimental_physics



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F-distribution
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F-distribution

Hierarchical Bayes model
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hierarchical_Bayes_model

Hierarchical model
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hierarchical_linear_modeling

List of experiments
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_experiments

Long-term experiment
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Long-term_experiment

Mixed model
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mixed_model

Multivariate analysis of variance
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multivariate_analysis_of_variance



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Paired difference test
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paired_difference_test

Randomization
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Randomization

Random assignment
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Random_assignment

Random effect
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Random_effect

Replication versus subsampling
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Replication_(statistics)

Restricted maximum likelihood (REML)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Restricted_maximum_likelihood

Restricted randomization
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Restricted_randomization

Scientific method
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_method

Sample size
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sample_size

Statistical hypothesis testing
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statistical_hypothesis_testing

Statistical power
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statistical_power

Test
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F_test

Uniformly most powerful test
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uniformly_most_powerful_test



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http://www.mysciencebox.org/




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