SANITATION
EMERGENCY
RURAL
URBAN




SANITATION

TYPES OF SANITATION

TYPES OF SANITATION RELATED TOPICS

WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF SANITATION SERVICES?

EMERGENCY SANITATION

SELF-SUPPY OF WATER AND SANITATION

SUSTAINABLE SANITATION ALLIANCE

URBAN SURVIVAL SANITATION ITEMS YOU SHOULD STOCKPILE

WHAT DISEASES ARE ASSOCIA WITH POOR SANITATION?

SANITATION LINKS



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SECTION 1



SANITATION




Sanitation is the hygienic means of promoting health through prevention
of human contact with the hazards of wastes as well as the treatment and
proper disposal of sewage or wastewater.

Hazards can be either physical, microbiological, biological or chemical
agents of disease. Wastes that can cause health problems include human
and animal excreta, solid wastes, domestic wastewater (sewage or greywater)
industrial wastes and agricultural wastes. Hygienic means of prevention can
be by using engineering solutions (e.g., sanitary sewers, sewage treatment,
surface runoff management, solid waste management, excreta management),
simple technologies (e.g., pit latrines, dry toilets, urine-diverting dry
toilets, septic tanks), or even simply by behavior changes in personal
hygiene practices, such as hand washing with soap.



Purposes

The overall purposes of sanitation are to provide a healthy living environment
for everyone, to protect the natural resources (such as surface water, groundwater,
soil), and to provide safety, security and dignity for people when they defecate or
urinate.

We also have a human right to sanitation: In September, 2010, the UN Human Rights
Council adopted a resolution recognizing that the human right to water and sanitation
are a part of the right to an adequate standard of living.

Effective sanitation systems provide barriers between excreta and humans in such a way
as to break the disease transmission cycle (for example in the case of fecal-borne
diseases). This aspect is visualised with the F-diagram where all major routes of
fecal-oral disease transmission begin with the letter F: feces, fingers, flies, fields,
fluids, food.



Sanitation
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanitation



Sanitation
http://www.infogalactic.com/info/Sanitation




List of abbreviations used in sanitation
http://www.infogalactic.com/info/List_of_abbreviations_used_in_sanitation




List of water supply and sanitation by country
http://www.infogalactic.com/info/List_of_water_supply_and_sanitation_by_country




Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation
http://www.infogalactic.com/info/Joint_Monitoring_Programme_for_Water_Supply_and_Sanitation




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SECTION 2



TYPES
OF
SANITATION




Sanitation is the practice of sterilization, or making sure that microbes
or germs do not get into contact with humans, animals, food or water,
causing infectious and sometimes fatal disease. It also involves disposing
of waste properly, so it does not threaten the environment. Practicing proper
hand washing and surface cleaning techniques are all part of best sanitation
practices.



Filtration

Filtration involves sterilizing water and filtering away waste products, so it
is safe for use and consumption. According to the Sanitation Training website,
this process involves passing water through a filter, which separates solid and
liquid waste products. After adding pure oxygen and ozone, the water passes
through a smaller filter. Once this process is complete, a water handler adds
chlorine to the water, killing any leftover bacteria.



Landfills

Carrying waste products to a landfill is another type of sanitation service.
According to the Sanitation Training website, city garbage workers transport
waste to a temporary holding place, or landfill. The purpose is to isolate
the solid waste from residential areas to avoid spreading diseases.



Recycling

Sanitation also includes recycling. Trained workers at recycling plants sort
paper, plastic and other recyclables from a general conveyor belt to one
specifically for each. Garbage workers sort leftover trash on the general
conveyor belt into piles arranged by type. Separated recyclables are crushed
and reprocessed, thereby preparing it for reuse. Separated trash goes to the
landfill. The Sanitation Training website cites paper, glass, plastic, and
metal as materials that are easily recyclable.



Ecological Sanitation

This concept involves the installation of toilets, especially in developing
countries where open defecation take place. The building and maintenance of
safe, clean toilets is paramount, according to the World Health Organization.
Also part of ecological sanitation, is teaching proper hand washing techniques
before handling food and after handling excrement. According to the Centers for
Disease Control website, you should wash your hands with soap and water for at
least 20 seconds, or to the tune of "Happy Birthday" twice.



Types of Sanitation
http://www.ehow.com/info_8143230_types-sanitation.html



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SECTION 3



TYPES
OF
SANITATION
RELATED TOPICS




Causes of Environmental Problems
http://www.ehow.com/list_7358061_causes-environmental-problems.html

Diseases Caused by Improper Waste Disposal
http://www.ehow.com/about_5132913_diseases-caused-improper-waste-disposal.html

Methods of Sanitation in Cosmetology
http://www.ehow.com/info_8379388_methods-sanitation-cosmetology.html

Sanitizing Tips
http://www.ehow.com/way_5206212_sanitizing-tips.html

Types of Deseases Caused From Drinking Dirty Water
http://www.ehow.com/info_8290982_types-caused-drinking-dirty-water.html

What Is the Difference Between Good Bacteria & Bad Bacteria?
http://www.ehow.com/about_5369592_difference-good-bacteria-bad-bacteria.html

Why Is it Important to Practice Proper Hygiene?
http://www.ehow.com/about_6698285_important-practice-proper-hygiene_.html

Why Is Sanitation Important?
http://www.ehow.com/info_8690013_sanitation-important.html



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SECTION 4



WHAT ARE THE
DIFFERENT TYPES OF
SANITATION SERVICES?




There are various types of sanitation services implemented by cities
and counties all over the world. They not only provide convenience to
citizens, but also make societies cleaner and more healthy to live in.
Liquid and solid wastes must be managed and controlled and these
services make sure that it is done as efficiently and safely as possible.

Municipal waste, also known as solid waste, requires the use one type of
sanitation services. This involves the storage and transportation of this
waste. Generally, this type of service is provided by the city. Garbage
trucks are often available to pick up and haul waste to the proper
facilities. Those who live outside of city limits may have to transport
garbage themselves.

Landfills also fall within this type of sanitation services because they
provide a safer area for garbage to be stored until it can be more properly
disposed of. Sometimes trash is eventually compacted to make more room and
then later incinerated. Other times trash is sorted and sent to a recycling
center.

Recycling centers are another variety of sanitation services. It still involves
the management of solid waste, but instead of storing or destroying the garbage;
it is cleaned, milled and reused. Plastic, glass and paper are common materials
that can be recycled. Citizens are encouraged to recycle goods wherever facilities
are available.

Another type of sanitation services involves the filtration, cleansing and reuse
of water. Human waste, contaminated rain water and industrial polluted water all
must be cleaned and purified so that it can be reused for drinking, bathing and
watering crops. This generally happens in a specialized treatment facility.

Most wastewater is run through a filter which separates solid materials from the
water. Then, the liquid is purified with ozone or oxygen or run through a tiny
filter which separates any bacteria or microorganisms. The water is also typically
combined with a purifying agent, like chlorine, which is used to kill any remaining
bacteria. Then it is filtered again to remove all but trace amounts of the chemical
so that it is once again safe for human consumption.

Additionally, there are specialized facilities used for the disposal of hazardous
waste products. Chemical agents such as cleaning solutions and oil, medical supplies
and radioactive materials must all be separated and treated differently than other
waste materials. For this reason, special facilities are available that are used to
neutralize and destroy these environmentally harmful agents.



What are the Different Types of Sanitation Services?
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-the-different-types-of-sanitation-services.htm



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SECTION 5



EMERGENCY
SANITATION




Emergency sanitation is the management and technical processes required
to provide access to sanitation in emergency situations such as after
natural disasters and during relief operations for refugees and Internally
Displaced Persons (IDPs). There are three phases: Immediate, short term and
long term. In the immediate phase, the focus is on managing open defecation,
and toilet technologies might include very basic latrines, pit latrines,
bucket toilets, container-based toilets, chemical toilets.

Providing handwashing facilities and management of fecal sludge are also part
of emergency sanitation.



Emergency sanitation
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emergency_sanitation



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SECTION 6



SELF-SUPPLY
OF WATER
AND SANITATION




Self-supply of water and sanitation (also called household-led water
supply or individual supply) refers to an approach of incremental
improvements to water and sanitation services, which are mainly
financed by the user. People around the world have been using this
approach over centuries to incrementally upgrade their water and
sanitation services. The approach does not refer to a specific
technology or type of water source or sanitation service although
it does have to be feasible to use and construct at a low cost and
mostly using tools locally available. The approach is rather about
an incremental improvement of these services. It is a market-based
approach and commonly does not involve product subsidies.

"Self-supply" is different to "supported self-supply", with the first
term referring to naturally occurring processes of people improving
their water and sanitation services, whereas the second term refers
to a deliberately guided process - usually by a government agency or
a non-governmental organization.



Self-supply of water and sanitation
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-supply_of_water_and_sanitation



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SECTION 7



SUSTAINABLE
SANITATION ALLIANCE




The Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) is an informal network
of organisations with a common vision on sustainable sanitation,to
provide a platform for knowledge exchange, networking and discussion
on all sustainable sanitation topics.



Sustainable Sanitation Alliance
http://Www.susana.org



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SECTION 8



URBAN SURVIVAL
SANITATION
ITEMS YOU
SHOULD STOCKPILE




When planning to survive in an Urban Survival situation, one thing
that’s often overlooked is the danger associated with a lack of
adequate sanitation. I know it’s not a pleasant thing to think about,
but this one issue has the potential to kill more people than any
other survival topic that we can talk about.

During any long-term disaster, where sewage systems are affected or
garbage trucks to stop running, things are going to quickly spiral
out of control? From people literally “going in the streets,” to
those trying to get rid of waste by burning toxic garbage in their
backyards, big cities, and urban areas will quickly become a threat
to your health and safety.

Sanitation will be one of the most significant survival issues
facing those living in an urban environment.



Sanitation items you need to stockpile:

Bathroom Products

5 Gallon Toilet Buckets or a Portable Camping Toilet

If you can afford it, a Composting Toilet is probably a better
long-term solution and makes clean up a lot easier.

Rapid-Dissolving Toilet Paper



Waste Removal

Garbage Bags

Ziploc Bags

Composting System

Chemical Gloves

Disposable Plastic Gloves



Survival Hygiene

Soaps & Waterless Soaps

Hand Sanitizers

Antibacterial Creams & Ointments

Toothpaste

Band-Aids and wraps

Bottles of Isopropyl Alcohol and Hydrogen Peroxide

N95 Respirator Masks

Cleaning Supplies & Bleach



Water

Water Purification Chemicals (Bleach, Iodine Tablets, etc.)

Heavy Duty Pot, that can be used to boil water over an open fire.

A good Water Filter.



Urban Survival Sanitation
Items you should stockpile

https://offgridsurvival.com/urbansurvivalsanitation/



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SECTION 9



WHAT DISEASES ARE
ASSOCIATED WITH
POOR SANITATION?




Human excreta have been implicated in the transmission of many
infectious diseases including cholera, typhoid, infectious
hepatitis, polio, cryptosporidiosis, and ascariasis. Undernutrition,
pneumonia, worm infestations, are also associated with unsafe water,
poor sanitation and hygiene resulting in reduced physical growth,
weakened physical fitness and impaired cognitive function, particularly
for children under the age of five.

Infectious agents are not the only health concerns associated with
wastewater and excreta. Heavy metals, toxic organic and inorganic
substances also can pose serious threats to human health and the
environment – particularly when industrial wastes are added to the
waste stream.



What diseases are associated with poor sanitation?
http://sanitationdrive2015.org/faqs/what-diseases-are-associated-with-poor-sanitation/



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SECTION 10



SANITATION
EMERGENCY
RURAL
URBAN
LINKS




About the Water Global Practice
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2015/09/25078413/

The Blackwater Question
http://www.spiritofmaat.com/archive/apr2/blackh2o.htm

Disaster Sanitation and Personal Hygiene
http://www.ice-pack.com/EP_news/2010/09/monday-matters-disaster-sanitation-and-personal-hygiene/

Emergency Sanitation
http://preparednessmama.com/emergency-sanitation/

Emergency Sanitation
http://www.practicalsurvivor.com/emergencysanitation

The Emergency Sanitation Project
http://emergencysanitationproject.org/

Engineering and Sanitation
http://www.cherokee.org/Services/Community/EngineeringandSanitation.aspx

The Global Goals for Sustainable Development
http://www.globalgoals.org/

A Guide to the Development of on-Site Sanitation
http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/hygiene/envsan/onsitesan.pdf

GUIDE TO SANITATION IN NATURAL DISASTERS
http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/41031/1/10678_eng.pdf

A Home Scale Waste Water Treatment Plant
http://waldenlabs.com/extreme-do-it-yourself-resilience-a-home-scale-waste-water-treatment-plant/



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How to Dispose of Human Waste in a Grid-Down Situation
http://www.theprepperjournal.com/2014/03/17/how-to-deal-with-human-waste/

How to set up a Sanitation Station
http://www.happypreppers.com/Sanitation.html

Improved sanitation facilities
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

IRC /en/ World Health Organization overview on sanitation
http://www.irc.nl/

InspectAPedia
http://inspectapedia.com/

Latrine Construction
http://www.open.edu/openlearncreate/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=207&printable=1

Off-Grid Toilets
http://www.offthegridnews.com/how-to-2/off-grid-toilets-your-options-for-lifes-necessity/

Potential Sanitation Solutions During an Emergency Response
https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/global/sanitation/sanitation-emergency-response.html

Rural Sanitation
http://www.nird.org.in/RuralTechnologyPark/RTP%20Technology%20Sanitation.html

Rural Sanitation and Hygiene
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTWAT/Resources/4602122-1213366294492/5106220-1213389414833/15.2Sanitation_Hyg.pdf

Rural Sanitation, Hygiene and Water Supply
http://www.unicef.org/bangladesh/RURAL_Water_Sanitation_and_Hygiene.pdf



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The Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Initiative (RWSSI)
http://www.afdb.org/en/topics-and-sectors/initiatives-partnerships/rural-water-supply-sanitation-initiative/

Sanitation
http://www.who.int/topics/sanitation/en/

Sanitation
http://www.psi.org/health-area/water-sanitation/sanitation/#about

Sanitation
https://www.ircwash.org/

Sanitation in Emergencies
http://www.sswm.info/content/sanitation-emergencies-overview

Sanitation: Facts, Figures, Resources
http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/sanitation/brief/sanitation-facts-figures-resources

Sanitation and Hygiene
http://www.who.int/ceh/capacity/sanitation_hygiene.pdf

Sanitation and Hygiene In An Emergency
http://www.nationalterroralert.com/sanitationhygiene/

Sanitation, Hygiene and Wastewater Resource Guide
http://water.worldbank.org/water/shw-resource-guide

Sanitation Systems
http://www.sswm.info/category/implementation-tools/wastewater-collection/hardware/introduction/sanitation-systems

A small DIY septic system
https://www.off-grid.net/a-small-diy-septic-system/



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Survival sanitation
http://preparedchristian.net/survival-sanitation/#.WTT4_DE2yZ8

Sustainable Sanitation
http://www.sswm.info/category/concept/sustainable-sanitation

Sustainable Sanitation
http://futurewewant.org/portfolio/central-and-eastern-europe-solution-for-sustainable-sanitation/

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance
http://www.susana.org

Sustainable Sanitation for the 21st Century
http://sustainablesanitation.info/

Sustainable Sanitation & Hygiene for All Results
http://www.snv.org/project/sustainable-sanitation-hygiene-all-results

Toilet Encyclopedia
http://www.inspectapedia.com/plumbing/Toilet_Types.php

Toilets for Health (Sanitation)
http://en.hesperian.org/hhg/New_Where_There_Is_No_Doctor:Toilets_for_Health_(Sanitation)

Toiletology
http://www.toiletology.com/

TOTAL SANITATION CAMPAIGN
http://rural.nic.in/sites/downloads/pura/Total%20Sanitation%20Campaign%20-%20DDWS.pdf

TYPES OF TOILETS
http://www.bio-activator.co.za/Types%20of%20toilets.htm



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TYPES OF TOILET TECHNOLOGIES
http://www.enviroalternatives.com/toiletswaterless.html

Urban Sanitation
https://www.usaid.gov/urban-sanitation

Urban Sanitation
https://sanitationupdates.wordpress.com/tag/urban-sanitation/

Urban sanitation
http://www.iwa-network.org/projects2/urban-sanitation

Urban Sanitation Planning and Development
https://www.wsp.org/sites/wsp.org/files/Stockholm_AsiaDay_Almud.pdf

Urban Water and Sanitation
http://www.unesco-ihe.org/urban-water-and-sanitation

Waste Disposal When Living Off The Grid
http://www.survivopedia.com/waste-disposal/

Water
http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/water

The Water Project
https://thewaterproject.org/

Water & Sanitation
http://unhabitat.org/urban-themes/water-and-sanitation-2/

Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH)
https://www.planusa.org/water-sanitation-hygiene

Water and Sanitation Program (WSP)
http://www.wsp.org

A Water-Secure World For All Water for development
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2015/09/25078413/

Water and Sewer Off Grid
http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/green-science/living-off-the-grid2.htm

Water Supply and Sanitation
http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/monitoring/jmpfinal.pdf

WHAT IS A PIT LATRINE?
http://www.ewisa.co.za/eWISAWaterworks/misc/eWISAFactSheets/Sanitation/PitLatrine_Types.htm

WHAT IS SANITATION?
https://esa.un.org/iys/review09/countries/nigeria/pdfs/Nigeria-IYSFAQsSanitation.pdf

WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme
http://www.wssinfo.org/



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Handwashing
http://www.cdc.gov/features/handwashing/




Drinking Water
http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/drinking/index.html




Healthy Water
http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/




Global WASH
http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/global/index.html




Healthy Swimming
http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/swimming/index.html




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Other Uses of Water
http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/other/index.html




WASH-related Emergencies & Outbreaks
http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/emergency/index.html




Water, Sanitation, & Environmentally-related Hygiene
http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/hygiene/index.html




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