PEST
MANAGEMENT




PEST (ORGANISM)

PEST MANAGEMENT

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT

WHAT IS STRUCTURAL PEST CONTROL?

PEST MANAGEMENT LINKS



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SECTION 1



PEST
(ORGANISM)




A pest is a plant or animal detrimental to humans or human concerns
including crops, livestock, and forestry. The term is also used of
organisms that cause a nuisance, such as in the home. An older usage
is of a deadly epidemic disease, specifically plague. In its broadest
sense, a pest is a competitor of humanity.



Pest (organism)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pest_(organism)



PEST
https://en.wikivoyage.org/wiki/Pests#Q219174




Pest insects
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Pest_insectsPest insects




Weeds (plants)
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Weeds_(plants)




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SECTION 2



PEST
MANAGEMENT




Pest management includes a wide range of programs addressing human
health, environmental and economic issues related to the management
of pest populations through a variety of science based technologies.
Americans want safe, pest and disease-free homes, schools, parks,
recreational areas, as well as a safe and affordable supply of
blemish-free food products and a wholesome pesticide-free environment.
NIFA funds programs and projects which support research, education,
and extension activities that promote pest management in general,
and reduced risk pest management in particular. The agency's pest
management programs are implemented through working partnerships with
scientists in our nation's colleges and universities, other federal
agencies and the private sector.



Pest Management
http://www.csrees.usda.gov/nea/pest/pest.cfm



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SECTION 3



INTEGRATED
PEST
MANAGEMENT




Integrated pest management (IPM), also known as Integrated Pest Control
(IPC) is a broad-based approach that integrates practices for economic
control of pests. IPM aims to suppress pest populations below the
economic injury level (EIL). The UN's Food and Agriculture Organisation
defines IPM as "the careful consideration of all available pest control
techniques and subsequent integration of appropriate measures that
discourage the development of pest populations and keep pesticides and
other interventions to levels that are economically justified and reduce
or minimize risks to human health and the environment. IPM emphasizes
the growth of a healthy crop with the least possible disruption to
agro-ecosystems and encourages natural pest control mechanisms."
Entomologists and ecologists have urged the adoption of IPM pest control
since the 1970s. IPM allows for safer pest control.This includes managing
insects, plant pathogens and weeds.

Globalization and increased mobility open allow increasing numbers of
invasive species to cross national borders. IPM poses the least risks
while maximizing benefits and reducing costs.



Principles


An American IPM system is designed around six basic components:

Acceptable pest levels—The emphasis is on control, not eradication.
IPM holds that wiping out an entire pest population is often
impossible, and the attempt can be expensive and unsafe. IPM
programmes first work to establish acceptable pest levels, called
action thresholds, and apply controls if those thresholds are
crossed. These thresholds are pest and site specific, meaning that
it may be acceptable at one site to have a weed such as white clover,
but not at another site. Allowing a pest population to survive at a
reasonable threshold reduces selection pressure. This lowers the rate
at which a pest develops resistance to a control, because if almost
all pests are killed then those that have resistance will provide the
genetic basis of the future population. Retaining a significant number
unresistant specimens dilutes the prevalence of any resistant genes
that appear. Similarly, the repeated use of a single class of controls
will create pest populations that are more resistant to that class,
whereas alternating among classes helps prevent this.

Preventive cultural practices—Selecting varieties best for local growing
conditions and maintaining healthy crops is the first line of defense.
Plant quarantine and 'cultural techniques' such as crop sanitation are
next, e.g., removal of diseased plants, and cleaning pruning shears to
prevent spread of infections. Beneficial fungi and bacteria are added to
the potting media of horticultural crops vulnerable to root diseases,
greatly reducing the need for fungicides.

Monitoring—Regular observation is critically important. Observation is
broken into inspection and identification. Visual inspection, insect
and spore traps, and other methods are used to monitor pest levels.
Record-keeping is essential, as is a thorough knowledge target pest
behavior and reproductive cycles. Since insects are cold-blooded, their
physical development is dependent on area temperatures. Many insects
have had their development cycles modeled in terms of degree-days. The
degree days of an environment determines the optimal time for a specific
insect outbreak. Plant pathogens follow similar patterns of response to
weather and season.

Mechanical controls—Should a pest reach an unacceptable level, mechanical
methods are the first options. They include simple hand-picking, barriers,
traps, vacuuming and tillage to disrupt breeding.

Biological controls—Natural biological processes and materials can provide
control, with acceptable environmental impact, and often at lower cost.
The main approach is to promote beneficial insects that eat or parasitize
target pests. Biological insecticides, derived from naturally occurring
microorganisms (e.g.—Bt, entomopathogenic fungi and entomopathogenic
nematodes), also fall in this category. Further 'biology-based' or
'ecological' techniques are under evaluation.

Responsible use—Synthetic pesticides are used as required and often only
at specific times in a pest's life cycle. Many newer pesticides are
derived from plants or naturally occurring substances (e.g.—nicotine,
pyrethrum and insect juvenile hormone analogues), but the toxophore or
active component may be altered to provide increased biological activity
or stability. Applications of pesticides must reach their intended targets.
Matching the application technique to the crop, the pest, and the pesticide
is critical. The use of low-volume spray equipment reduces overall
pesticideuse and labor cost.



Integrated pest management
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Integrated_pest_management



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SECTION 4



WHAT IS
STRUCTURAL
PEST CONTROL?




Structural pest control is the control of household pests (including
but not limited to rodents, vermin and insects) and wood-destroying
pests and organisms or such other pests which may invade households
or structures, including railroad cars, ships, docks, trucks,
airplanes, or the contents thereof.

The practice of structural pest control includes the engaging in,
offering to engage in, advertising for, soliciting, or the
performance of any of the following: identification of infestations
or infections; the making of an inspection for the purpose of
identifying or attempting to identify infestations or infections of
household or other structures by such pests or organisms; the making
of inspection reports; recommendations, estimates, and bids, whether
oral or written, with respect to such infestation or infections; and
the making of contracts, or the submitting of bids for, or the
performance of any work including the making of structural repairs
or replacements, or the use of pesticides, insecticides, rodenticides,
fumigants, or allied chemicals or substances, or mechanical devices
for the purpose of eliminating, exterminating, controlling or
preventing infestations or infections of such pests, or organisms.



What is Structural Pest Control?
http://www.pestboard.ca.gov/about/whatis.shtml



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SECTION 5



PEST
MANAGEMENT
LINKS




The 10 Most Destructive Garden Insects and How to Get Rid of Them
https://www.goodhousekeeping.com/home/gardening/a20705991/garden-insect-pests/

16 Common Garden Pests
https://www.hgtv.com/design/outdoor-design/landscaping-and-hardscaping/16-common-garden-pests-pictures

Association of Natural Biocontrol Producers
http://www.anbp.org

The Basics of Pest Control
https://www.thespruce.com/pest-control-basics-4127882

Crop Pest Types
http://www.extento.hawaii.edu/kbase/crop/Type/Croppest.htm

Dropdata
http://www.dropdata.org

Harvard University IPM
http://www.uos.harvard.edu/ehs/pes.shtml

How to Identify Underground Yard Pests
https://homeguides.sfgate.com/identify-underground-yard-pests-54584.html

Identifying Insect Culprits
https://garden.org/courseweb/perennials/Class6/c6p5.html

Identifying Insect Pests
https://www.hgtv.com/outdoors/gardens/planting-and-maintenance/identifying-insect-pests



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Images of Common Garden Pests, Bugs and Natural Remedy Solutions
http://www.countryfarm-lifestyles.com/garden-pests.html#.W2OwQhG0WZ8

Insect Identification
https://garden.org/thread/view/17415/Insect-Identification/

Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
http://www.epa.gov/opp00001/factsheets/ipm.htm

Integrated Pest Management: Collaborative
Research Support Program (IPM CRSP)

http://www.oired.vt.edu/ipmcrsp/IPM_2008/draft_home.htm

Invasive Species and Pest Management
http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/resources/lists.shtml

IPM for Lawn care
http://www.flora.org/healthyottawa/ipm-accreditation.htm

IPM Images - Thousands of Images related to IPM and Agriculture
http://www.ipmimages.org

IPM Institute of North America
http://www.ipminstitute.org

Insect Images
https://www.insectimages.org/

National Agricultural Pest Information System
http://pest.ceris.purdue.edu/



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National Pest Management Association
http://www.pestworld.org

National Pest Technicians Association,England U.K
http://www.npta.org.uk

Office of Pest Management Policy
https://www.ars.usda.gov/office-of-pest-management-policy/office-of-pest-management-policy-home-page/

Pest Alert
http://blogs.ifas.ufl.edu/pestalert/

Pest Control
http://npic.orst.edu/pest/index.html

Pest Control Library
https://garden.org/learn/library/pests/

Pest Control Tactics
http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/text19/tactics1.html

Pest Detection
https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/ourfocus/planthealth/pest-detection

Pest Guide
https://www.pestworld.org/pest-guide/

Pest Library
https://www.orkin.com/scienceeducation/pest_library/



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Pest Lists
https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/ourfocus/planthealth/plant-pest-and-disease-programs

Pest Management
https://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/farm-practices-management/crop-livestock-practices/pest-management.aspx

Pest Management Information
http://palimpsest.stanford.edu/bytopic/pest/

Pest Management Resources
https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/main/national/landuse/crops/npm/

Pest Problem Solver
https://www.planetnatural.com/pest-problem-solver/

Pest Types
https://www.dodsonbros.com/pest-type/

Pest Types
http://ladybugpestcontrol.com/Pest-Types.html

Plant Pests: Insects and Diseases
https://www.thespruce.com/insects-and-diseases-of-plants-4070266

Remote Pest Identification Program
https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/ourfocus/planthealth/pest-detection/pest-identification/ct_rpip

SAFECROP Centre for research and development
of crop protection with low environment and
consumer health impact

http://www.safecrop.org/



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Types Of Pests
http://www.bowcolabs.com/Types-Of-Pest-Control-Insects-Animals-Rodents-In-NJ/

Types Of Pests
http://oer.nios.ac.in/wiki/index.php/Types_of_Pests

Types of Pest Control
https://landscapeipm.tamu.edu/types-of-pest-control/

Types of Pest Control: Advantages and Characteristics
https://pestsolutionsnw.com/types-of-pest-control-advantages-and-characteristics/

UF/IFAS Pest Alert
http://entomology.ifas.ufl.edu/pestalert/

University of Florida's Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences IPM Program IFAS IPM

http://ipm.ifas.ufl.edu

Vegetable MD online
vegetablemdonline.ppath.cornell.edu/

What Is Integrated Pest Management?
http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/ehs/Docs/Factsheets/What_Is_Integrated_Pest_Management.pdf

What Is IPM?
http://www.whatisipm.org/



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Animals and Their Habitats
http://www.dpughphoto.com/index




Critter Catalog
http://www.biokids.umich.edu/critters/




The Encyclopedia of Life
http://eol.org/




The Xerces Society
http://www.xerces.org/




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