MOTOR SKILLS
FINE MOTOR SKILLS
GROSS MOTOR SKILLS




MOTOR SKILLS

MOTOR SYSTEM

MOTOR SYSTEM RELATED TOPICS

MOTOR LEARNING

MOTOR LEARNING AND CONTROL

WHAT ARE MOTOR SKILLS?

WHAT ARE MOTOR SKILLS RELATED TOPICS

WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FINE & GROOS MOTOR SKILLS?

ACTIVITIES TO IMPROVE MOTOR PLANNING IN KIDS

ACTIVITIES TO IMPROVE MOTOR PLANNING IN KIDS RELATED TOPICS

MOTOR SKILLS LINKS



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SECTION 1



MOTOR SKILLS




Development of motor skills



Due to the immaturity of the human nervous system at the time of
birth, children grow continually throughout their childhood years.
Many factors contribute to the ability and the rate that children
develop their motor skills. Uncontrollable factors include: genetic
or inherited traits and children with learning disorders. A child
born to short and overweight parents is much less likely to be an
athlete than a child born to two athletically built parents.

Controllable factors include: the environment/society and culture
they are born to. A child born in the city is much less likely to
have the same opportunities to explore, hike, or trek the outdoors
than one born in the rural area. For a child to successfully develop
motor skills, he or she must receive many opportunities to physically
explore the surroundings.

Infantile: Early movements made by very young infants are largely
reflexive. An infant is exposed to a variety of perceptual experiences
through the senses. Gradually, the infant learns that certain involuntary,
reflexive movements can result in pleasurable sensory experiences, and
will attempt to repeat the motions voluntarily in order to experience the
pleasurable sensation.



6 months can sit straight

12 months takes first steps

24 months can jump

36 months can cut with scissors; runs on toes



Types of tasks

Continuous tasks: activities like swimming, bicycling, running;
the performance level is just as proficient as before even after
years of no use.

Discrete tasks: an instrument, video game, or a sport, the performance
level drops significantly but will be better than a new learner. The
relationship between the two tasks is that continuous tasks usually use
gross motor skills and discrete tasks use finer motor skills.



Gross motor skills

Gross motor skill requires the use of large muscle groups to perform
tasks like walking, balancing, crawling. The skill required is not
extensive and therefore are usually associated with continuous tasks.
Much of the development of these skills occurs during early childhood.
The performance level of gross motor skill remains unchanged after
periods of non-use.



Fine motor skills

Fine motor skill requires the use of smaller muscle groups to perform
tasks that are precise in nature. Activities like playing the piano
and playing video games are examples of using fine motor skills.
Generally, there is a retention loss of fine motor skills over a period
of non-use. Discrete tasks usually require more fine motor skill than
gross motor skills.



Motor skill
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motor_skill



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SECTION 2



MOTOR SYSTEM




The motor system is the part of the central nervous system
that is involved with movement. It consists of the pyramidal
and extrapyramidal system.



Motor system
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motor_system



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SECTION 3



MOTOR SYSTEM
RELATED TOPICS




Motor control
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motor_control

Motor disorder
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motor_disorder

Central nervous system
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_nervous_system

Pyramidal tracts
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyramidal_tracts

Extrapyramidal system
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extrapyramidal_system



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SECTION 4



MOTOR LEARNING




Motor learning is a change, resulting from practice or a novel experience,
in the capability for responding. It often involves improving the smoothness
and accuracy of movements and is obviously necessary for complicated movements
such as speaking, playing the piano, and climbing trees; but it is also important
for calibrating simple movements like reflexes, as parameters of the body and
environment change over time.

Motor learning research often considers variables that contribute to motor program
formation (i.e., underlying skilled motor behaviour), sensitivity of error-detection
processes, and strength of movement schemas (see motor program). Motor learning is
"relatively permanent", as the capability to respond appropriately is acquired and
retained. As a result, the temporary processes that affect behaviour during practice
or experience should not be considered learning, but rather transient performance
effects. As such, the main components underlying the behavioural approach to motor
learning are structure of practice and back given. The former pertains to the
manipulation of timing and organization of practice (potentially for different
subtasks or variations of the task) for optimal information retention, while the
latter pertains to the influence of feedback on the preparation, anticipation, and
guidance of movement.



Motor learning
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motor_learning



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SECTION 5



MOTOR LEARNING
AND CONTROL




Motor learning and control is the study of how our brains execute
complex muscle movements. Motor means muscle in this context.



Three Stages of Motor Learning

We learn new motor skills in three stages:

1. In the cognitive stage, you observe the target motor skill.
For example, your speech-language pathologist demonstrates
relaxed breathing.

2. In the associative stage, you learn to perform and refine the
motor skill. You perform the movements under closed-loop control.

3. In the autonomous stage, the motor skill becomes automatic. You
perform the muscle movements without mental effort. You perform the
movements under open-loop control.



Motor learning and control
https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Speech-Language_Pathology/Stuttering/Fluency-Shaping_Therapy/Motor_Learning_and_Control



Category:Memory processes
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Memory_processes




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SECTION 6



WHAT ARE
MOTOR SKILLS?




Motor skills are skills involving movement and motion. A child with
motor impairments has trouble moving in a controlled, coordinated,
and efficient way. Occupational and physical therapists will work to
strengthen your child's motor skills, with occupational therapists
dealing primarily with fine motor skills and physical therapists
concentrating on gross motor skills.



Fine motor skills

Fine motor refers to movements that require a high degree of control
and precision.

These may include drawing shapes, writing, cutting with a scissors,
using eating utensils. Children with neurological problems or
developmental delays may have difficulty with fine motor skills.
They may receive occupational therapy to help them catch up, or may
need modifications or assistive technology to keep up with schoolwork
in spite of these delays.



Gross motor skills

Gross motor refers to movements that involve large muscle groups and are
generally more broad and energetic than fine motor movements.

These may include walking, kicking, jumping, and climbing stairs.
Children with neurological problems, developmental delays, or
disabilities that affect movement may receive physical therapy to
help with gross motor skills, or may need modifications or assistive
technology to keep up with mobility or athletics in spite of these
delays.



What Are Motor Skills?
http://specialchildren.about.com/od/therapies/g/motorskills.htm



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SECTION 7



WHAT ARE
MOTOR SKILLS
RELATED TOPICS




What are Gross Motor Skills and Why are They Important?
http://preschoolers.about.com/od/parentingglossary/g/Gross-Motor-Skills.htm

What are Fine Motor Skills and Why Are They Important?
http://preschoolers.about.com/od/parentingglossary/g/Fine-Motor-Skills.htm

Is Your Child's Motor Skill Development Normal?
http://learningdisabilities.about.com/od/gi/p/grossmotorskill.htm

Physical Development
http://babyparenting.about.com/od/parentingglossary/g/Physical-Development.htm

Fine Motor Skill Builders that Even Boys Will Like
http://learningdisabilities.about.com/od/teachingwriting/qt/fine_motor_skills_boys.htm

Skills You Can Expect Kids to Learn by Age 3
http://babyparenting.about.com/od/childdevelopment/ss/Your-3-Year-Old.htm



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SECTION 8



WHAT IS THE
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN
FINE MOTOR SKILLS
GROSS MOTOR SKILLS




Motor skills are motions carried out when the brain, nervous system,
and muscles work together.

Fine motor skills are small movements such as picking up small
objects and holding a spoon that use the small muscles of the
fingers, toes, wrists, lips, and tongue.

Gross motor skills are the bigger movements such as rolling over
and sitting that use the large muscles in the arms, legs, torso,
and feet.



What's the difference between fine and gross motor skills?
http://www.babycenter.com/404_whats-the-difference-between-fine-and-gross-motor-skills_6562.bc



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SECTION 9



ACTIVITIES TO
IMPROVE MOTOR PLANNING
IN KIDS




Motor planning is a child's ability to organize, plan and execute
new or unpracticed fine motor skills, such as drawing or riding a
bike. Motor planning includes developing hand-eye coordination and
gross motor skills, movements of the large muscles of the body, such
as keeping balance when shifting positions. For toddlers learning how
to walk, handicapped children, and kids affected with dyspraxia a
difficulty in motor planning specialized motor-skill building
activities help the child control his arms and legs so he can begin
grasping, touching and experiencing the world on his own.



Activities to Improve Motor Planning in Kids
http://www.ehow.com/info_7891428_activities-improve-motor-planning-kids.html



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SECTION 10



ACTIVITIES TO
IMPROVE MOTOR PLANNING
IN KIDS
RELATED TOPICS




Activities for Gross Motor Skills
http://www.ehow.com/list_6309315_activities-gross-motor-skills.html

Examples of Large Motor Skills
http://www.ehow.com/list_6387580_examples-large-motor-skills.html

List of Fine Motor Skills
http://www.ehow.com/info_7924797_list-fine-motor-skills.html

How to Develop a Toddler's Motor Skills
http://www.ehow.com/how_4448673_develop-toddlers-motor-skills.html



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SECTION 11









40 Fine Motor Skills Activities
http://theimaginationtree.com/2013/09/40-fine-motor-skills-activities-for-kids.html

Activities to Enhance Fine Motor Skills: 18 to 24 Months
http://www.parents.com/toddlers-preschoolers/development/activities-for-fine-motor-skills/#page=2

Autism Affects Motor Skills, Too
http://www.webmd.com/news/20140428/autism-affects-motor-skills-too

Center For Integration Of Medicine And Innovative Technology
http://www.cimit.org

Developing Motor Skills
http://www.parents.com/toddlers-preschoolers/development/physical/child-developing-motor-skills/

Fine and Gross Motor Skills
http://www.ccfc.ca.gov/parents/learning-center/fine-gross-motor-skills/#/?a=finegrossmotorskills

Fine Motor Skills
http://www.kamloopschildrenstherapy.org/fine-motor-skills-toddler-milestones

Fine Motor Skills Infants/Toddlers/Preschoolers
http://www.pinterest.com/caseywaid/fine-motor-skills-infants-toddlers-preschoolers/

Gross Motor Skills
http://www.kamloopschildrenstherapy.org/gross-motor-skills-milestones-toddler

How to help your toddler develop fine motor skills
http://www.babycenter.com/0_how-to-help-your-toddler-develop-fine-motor-skills_11549.bc

Infant and Toddler Activities
http://www.delmarlearning.com/companions/content/1428318275/additional_resources/1428320865_154666.pdf

Motor Skills
http://www.uvm.edu/~cdci/archives/mgiangre/Motorskills.pdf

Motor Skills
http://lessonslearntjournal.com/baby-motor-skills/

Motor Skills And Child Development
http://www.essortment.com/motor-skills-child-development-50784.html

Motor Skills are Essential to Learning!
http://www.educlime.com/wharemosk.html

New Schema Perspectives
http://www.kin.sjsu.edu/faculty/ewughalter/New%20Schema%20Perspectives.ppt

Summer Safety Tips
http://www.aap.org/en-us/about-the-aap/aap-press-room/news-features-and-safety-tips/pages/Summer-Safety-Tips.aspx

What Are Motor Skills?
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-motor-skills.htm



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Search junior
http://www.searchjunior.com/




LibriVox
free public domain audiobooks

http://librivox.org/




Wonderopolis
http://wonderopolis.org/




Share My Lesson
http://www.sharemylesson.com/home.aspx




SoftSchools.com
http://www.softschools.com/




FREE STUDENT HANDOUTS
http://www.studenthandouts.com/




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Difference Between
http://www.differencebetween.info/




Education.com
http://www.education.com/




Academic Educational Encyclopedia
http://academickids.com/




Nick Jr.
http://www.nickjr.com/




Highlights Kids.com
http://www.highlightskids.com/




TeAch-nology.com
http://www.teach-nology.com/




Lesson Planet
http://www.lessonplanet.com/




Wonderopolis
http://wonderopolis.org/




KIDS WORLD
http://www.kidzworld.com/




The Children's University of Manchester
http://www.childrensuniversity.manchester.ac.uk/




Earth Station Nine
http://www.earthstation9.com/




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