INFRASTRUCTURES
TECHNOLOGY
INTEGRATION




INFRASTRUCTURE

RURAL INFRASTRUCTURE

INTERNATIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE

11 CRITERIA

WORLD-CLASS INFRASTRUCTURE

MEDIOCRE INFRASTRUCTURE

EXECUTIVE SUPPORT

CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE

INFO TECH INFRASTRUCTURE LIBRARY (ITIL)

PUBLIC INFRASTRUCTURE

INFRASTRUCTURE LINKS

INFRASTRUCTURE RESOURCES



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SECTION 1



INFRASTRUCTURE




Infrastructure is generally structural elements
that provide the framework supporting an entire
structure.

The term has diverse meanings in different fields,
but is perhaps most widely understood to refer to
roads, airports, and utilities.

These various elements may collectively be termed
civil infrastructure, municipal infrastructure,
or simply public works, although they may be
developed and operated as private-sector or
government enterprises.

In other applications, infrastructure may refer
to information technology, informal and formal
channels of communication, software development
tools, political and social networks, beliefs
held by members of particular groups.




National
Research
Council
(NRC)




The NRC panel then sought to rectify the situation
by adopting the term "public works infrastructure",
referring to:


both specific functional modes,

highways,
streets,
roads,
bridges;

mass transit;

airports
airways;

water supply,
water resources;

wastewater management;

solid-waste treatment,
disposal;

electric power generation,
transmission;

telecommunications;

hazardous waste management,

and the combined system
these modal elements
comprise.



A comprehension of infrastructure spans not only
these public works facilities, but also the
operating procedures, management practices, and
development policies that interact together with
societal demand and the physical world to
facilitate the transport of people and goods,
provision of water for drinking and a variety of
other uses, safe disposal of society's waste
products, provision of energy where it is needed,
and transmission of information within and between
communities.




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SECTION 2



RURAL
INFRASTRUCTURES




Rural infrastructure differs from urban infrastructure in
the amount of public investment per unit of geographical
area.

In general, public investment in infrastructure tends to
parallel the number of households in a geographical area.
The funding of rural infrastructure is most often limited
by the depth of the public revenue base in the area, which
is often dependent on the presence or absence of industrial
plants, other corporate employment nodes or community
commerce.

Although some publicly controlled assets critical to human
survival exist in rural areas, utilities and transport tend
to be much less extensive and thus less convenient or entirely
unavailable to much of the general populace. Rural areas usually
do not have extensive pipeline systems for distribution of
potable water; inhabitants rely on nature's services for drinking,
cooking and bathing water drawn from private wells or from streams,
ponds and lakes.



Infrastructure
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infrastructure/



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SECTION 3



INTERNATIONAL
INFRASTRUCTURES




An ongoing international process of multiple, local
action oriented events which provide space for people
to come together, to share experiences, present
practical solutions, to learn and to build, all kinds
of Free Information Infrastructures.

Infrastructures, are shared across language, cultural
and other boundaries, and are natural meeting points
for people.



Affordable,

non-bureaucratic,

participatory,

do it yourself,

self-governing approaches,
in a wide variety of fields.



World Summits
Free Information Infrastructures
WSFII

http://www.wsfii.org/



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SECTION 4



11
CRITERIA
FOR
WORLD-CLASS
INFRASTRUCTURES




11 criteria that frequently differentiate world-class
infrastructures from those that are merely average or
more often, mediocre.




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SECTION 4A



WORLD-CLASS
INFRASTRUCTURE




1. Totally supported by executive management

2. Meaningful metrics analyzed, not just collected

3. Proactive approach to problem solving, change
management, availability, performance and tuning,
and capacity planning

4. Help desk involves call management, not just
call tracking

5. Employees empowered to make decisions and
improvements

6. Standards well developed and enforced

7. Employees well trained

8. Employees well equipped

9. Processes are designed with robustness

10. Technology used effectively to automate
streamlined processes

11. Integration of systems-management
functions




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SECTION 4B



MEDIOCRE
INFRASTRUCTURE




1. Little or no support
from executive management

2. Convenient metrics
(not necessarily meaningful)
collected, not analyzed

3. Reactive approach to problem
solving, change management,
availability, performance and
tuning, and capacity planning

4. Help desk focuses on call
tracking, not call management

5. Employees empowered very
little, or not at all

6. Standards poorly developed,
with little or no enforcement

7. Employees poorly trained

8. Employees poorly equipped

9. Processes designed with
little or no robustness

10. Technology applied
inappropriately, if at
all

11. Little or no integration
of systems-management functions




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SECTION 4C



EXECUTIVE
SUPPORT




Executive support is one of the primary prerequisites
for implementing a world-class infrastructure.

Executive support doesn;t mean merely approving budgets
for hardware, software, and human resources (executives
in many firms with mediocre infrastructures readily
approve budgets); it means an IT executive who actively
participates in the planning, development, and decision
-making processes of systems management.

Active participation by executives can take on many forms.
It may involve executives taking the time to understand
the challenges and obstacles of providing sound
infrastructures. It may consist of managers helping to
prioritize which functions of systems management are most
important to their firms.

It may result in executives backing up their staffs when
negotiating reasonable (rather than unrealistic) service
levels with customers.

Finally, it may be the CIO or his representative ensuring
that other departments within IT, notably applications
development, actively support and comply with established
infrastructure policies, procedures, and standards.



Infrastructure expert
Rich Schiesser

http://www.informit.com/articles/article.aspx?p=29974&rl=1/



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SECTION 5



CRITICAL
INFRASTRUCTURE




Critical infrastructure is a term used by governments
to describe material assets that are essential for the
functioning of a society and economy.



Most commonly associated with
the term are facilities for:

electricity generation,
transmission and distribution;

gas production,
transport and distribution;

oil and oil products production,
transport and distribution;

telecommunication;

water supply
(drinking water, waste water/sewage,
stemming of surface water,
(e.g. dikes and sluices));

agriculture,
food production and distribution;

heating
(e.g. natural gas,
fuel oil,
district heating);

public health
(hospitals, ambulances);

transportation systems
(fuel supply,
railway network,
airports,
harbours,
inland shipping);

financial services
(banking, clearing);

security services
(police, military).



Critical-infrastructure protection is the study,
design and implementation of precautionary
measures aimed to reduce the risk that critical
infrastructure fails as:


the result of war,

disaster,

civil unrest,

vandalism,

sabotage.




USA
CRITICAL
INFRASTRUCTURES
AND
RESPONSIBLE
AGENCIES




Agriculture and Food-
Departments of Agriculture
and Health and Human Services


Water-
Environmental Protection Agency

Public Health Department of
Health and Human Services

Emergency Services
Department of Homeland Security

Government
Department of Homeland Security

Defense Industrial Base
Department of Defense

Information and Telecommunications
Department of Commerce

Energy
Department of Energy

Transportation and Shipping
Department of Transportation

Banking and Finance
Department of the Treasury

Chemical Industry and Hazardous Materials
Department of Homeland Security

Post
Department of Homeland Security

National monuments and icons -
Department of the Interior



CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Critical_infrastructure



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SECTION 6



THE
INFORMATION
TECHNOLOGY
INFRASTRUCTURE
LIBRARY
ITIL




The Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL)
is a set of concepts and techniques for managing
information technology (IT) infrastructure, development,
and operations.



The Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ITIL



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SECTION 7



PUBLIC
INFRASTRUCTURE




Public infrastructure is a general term often
qualified specifically as:



Critical infrastructure required
to sustain human life

Infrastructural capital under
public ownership

Municipal infrastructure under
local government control

Public Capital assets

Public works maintenance
functions and agencies,
not just the structures

Sustainable municipal
infrastructure

Sustainable urban
infrastructure




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SECTION 8



INFRASTRUCTURE
LINKS




Commission Sustainable Development
http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/

Djursland International Institute of Rural Wireless Broadband
http://www.diirwb.net/

Freifunk.net
http://www.freifunk.net/

Infracritical
http://www.infracritical.com/

INFORMIT
http://www.informit.com/

Institute for Civil Infrastructure Systems ICIS
http://www.icisnyu.org/

Next Generation Infrastructures international research programme
http://www.nginfra.nl/

The Open Knowledge Foundation
http://www.okfn.org/



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The Oplan foundation
http://www.oplan.org/

World Bank Infrastructure for Development
http://www.worldbank.org/inf/

World Summits on Free Information Infrastructures WSFII
http://www.wsfii.org/

ASCE Journal of Infrastructure Systems
http://www.its.berkeley.edu/JIS/

Information Infrastructure Systems
http://www.iisrd.org/

Institute for Civil Infrastructure Systems ICIS
http://www.icisnyu.org/

SCIENCE DAILY
http://www.sciencedaily.com/

USACE Infrastructure Systems Conference
http://www.usaceiscconf.org/

US National Science Foundation (NSF)
http://www.nsf.gov/




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SECTION 9



INFRASTRUCTURE
RESOURCES




Agriculture
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agriculture


Banking
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banking


Capital assets
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capital_asset


Chemical Industry
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemical_Industry


Critical infrastructure
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Critical_infrastructure


Departments of Agriculture
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Department_of_Agriculture


Department of Commerce
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Department_of_Commerce


Department of Health and Human Services
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Department_of_Health_and_Human_Services


Department of Homeland Security
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Department_of_Homeland_Security


Department of the Treasury
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Department_of_the_Treasury



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Energy
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy


Finance
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Finance


Food
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Food


Government
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Government


Hazardous Material
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hazardous_Material


Information
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information


Infrastructural capital under public ownership
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infrastructural_capital


Military Industrial Complex
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_Industrial_Complex


Municipal infrastructure under local government control
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Municipal_infrastructure


Public Infrastructure
http:///en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_infrastructure



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Public works
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_works


Shipping
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shipping


Sustainable municipal infrastructure
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainable_municipal_infrastructure


Sustainable urban infrastructure
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainable_urban_infrastructure


Telecommunications
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telecommunications


Transportation
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transport


United States Department of Defense
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Department_of_Defense


United States Department of Energy
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Department_of_Energy


United States Environmental Protection Agency
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Environmental_Protection_Agency


United States Department of Transportation
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Department_of_Transportation


Water
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water



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