INFECTIOUS
DISEASES




INFECTIOUS DISEASES

INFECTION

PARASITIC ORGANISM

PATHOGEN

CONTAGIOUS COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

TRANSMISSION

VECTOR

EPIDEMIOLOGY

STAPH INFECTION

SOME STAPH INFECTIONS

FOOD POISONING AND STAPH

AT RISK FOR STAPH

CARE TEST FOR STAPH

PREVENT STAPH SKIN INFECTIONS



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RESPIRATORY DISEASES

EPIDEMIC

PANDEMIC

HEPATITIS

VIRAL HEPATITIS

HEPATITIS SYMPTOMS

FLU/INFLUENZA

TRANSMISSION

PREVENTION

FLU TERMS

BIOTECHNOLOGY

INFECTIOUS DISEASES LINKS



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SECTION 1



INFECTIOUS DISEASES




The branch of medicine
that focuses on infections
and pathogens is called
infectious disease.




INFECTIOUS DISEASES:

An infectious disease is a clinically
evident disease of humans or animals
that damages or injures the host so
as to impair host function, and results
from the presence and activity of one or
more pathogenic microbial agents,
including:


viruses,
bacteria,
fungi,
protozoa,
multicellular parasites,
and aberrant proteins
known as prions.



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SECTION 1A



INFECTION




Infection: The growth of a
parasitic organism within
the body.

An infection is the detrimental
colonization of a host organism
by a foreign species.
In infection, the infecting
organism seeks to utilize the
host's resources in order to
multiply (usually at the
expense of the host).

The term "infection" has some
exceptions. For example, the
normal growth of the usual
bacterial flora in the
intestinal tract is not
usually considered an
infection.

The same consideration applies
to the bacteria that normally
inhabit the mouth.




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SECTION 1B



PARASITIC
ORGANISM




A parasitic organism is one
that lives on or in another
organism and draws its
nourishment therefrom.

A person with an infection
has another organism (a
"germ") growing within him,
drawing its nourishment
from the person.




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SECTION 1C



PATHOGEN




The infecting organism, or pathogen,
interferes with the normal functioning
of the host and can lead to:

chronic wounds,
gangrene,
loss of an
infected limb,
even death.

The host's response to
infection is inflammation.


Colloquially, a pathogen is usually
considered a microscopic organism
though the definition is broader,

including bacteria,
parasites,
fungi,
viruses,
prions,
viroids.


PARASITISM
A symbiosis between parasite and host,
whereby the relationship is beneficial
for the former but detrimental to the
latter, is characterised as parasitism.




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SECTION 2



CONTAGIOUS
COMMUNICABLE
DISEASES




A contagious
disease
also called a
communicable disease,


is an infectious disease that is
capable of being transmitted from
one person or species to another.




CONTAGIOUS
COMMUNICABLE
DISEASES

Contagious diseases are
often spread through:

direct contact with
an individual,
contact with the
bodily fluids of
infected individuals,

with objects that the
infected individual
has contaminated.


INFECTIVITY:
The term infectivity describes the
ability of an organism to enter,
survive and multiply in the host,
while the infectiousness of a
disease indicates the comparative
ease with which the disease is
transmitted to other hosts.

An infection, is not synonymous with
an infectious disease; as an infection
may not cause clinical symptoms or
impair host function.




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SECTION 3



TRANSMISSION




Transmission of an infectious disease
may occur through several pathways,
including:


through contact
with infected
individuals,

by water,

food,

airborne
inhalation,

through
vector-borne
spread.


An infectious disease is transmitted
from some source. Defining the means
of transmission plays an important
part in understanding the biology of
an infectious agent, and in addressing
the disease it causes.

Transmission may occur through
several different mechanisms.


RESPIRATORY
DISEASES

Respiratory diseases and
meningitis are commonly
acquired by:
contact with
aerosolized
droplets,

spread by
sneezing,

coughing,

talking,

even singing.


GASTROINTESTINAL
DISEASES

Gastrointestinal diseases
are often acquired by
ingesting contaminated
food and water.


SEXUALLY
TRANSMITTED
DISEASES

Sexually transmitted diseases
are acquired through contact
with bodily fluids, generally
as a result of sexual activity.

Some infectious agents may be
spread as a result of contact
with a contaminated, inanimate
object, (known as a fomite),
such as a coin passed from one
person to another.


While others diseases
penetrate the skin
directly.




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SECTION 4



VECTOR




Transmission of
infectious diseases
may also involve a
"vector".




VECTOR
Vector, is a person
or animal that transmits
disease-causing organism.

Vectors may be
mechanical,
biological.



MECHANICAL
VECTOR

A mechanical vector picks up an
infectious agent on the outside
of its body and transmits it in
a passive manner.



BIOLOGICAL
VECTORS

Biological vectors harbor pathogens
within their bodies and deliver the
pathogens to new hosts in an active
manner, usually a bite.

Biological vectors are often
responsible for serious
blood-borne diseases,
such as:

malaria,

viral encephalitis,

Chagas disease,

African sleeping
sickness.




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SECTION 5



EPIDEMIOLOGY




Epidemiology
scientific study
factors affecting
health and illness




Epidemiology is the scientific study
of factors affecting the health and
illness of populations, and serves
as the foundation and the logic of
interventions made in the interest
of public health and preventive
medicine.

It is considered a cornerstone
methodology of public health
research, and is highly regarded
in evidence-based medicine for
identifying risk factors for
disease and determining optimal
treatment approaches to clinical
practice.




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EPIDEMIOLOGY
LINKS




Epidemiologic Inquiry
http://www.epidemiologic.org/

Epidemiology
http://www.epidem.com/

EpiMonitor.Net
http://www.epimonitor.net/



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SECTION 6



STAPH
INFECTION




There are more than 30 species
in the staph family of bacteria,
and they can cause different
kinds of illnesses.


STAPH:
pronounced "staff"
is medical quick speak
for staphylococcus
aureus bacteria.


This pesky little bacterium is
very common (many people have
some living on their skin all
the time), but when it enters
the human body, usually through
an open cut or break in the skin,
it can cause infection and trouble
anywhere in the body.


Staph infections
tend to be
pus-producing.




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SECTION 7



SOME
STAPH
INFECTIONS




FOLLICULITIS:
Infections of hair follicles
that cause itchy white
pus-filled bumps on the skin
(often where people shave or
have irritations from skin
rubbing against clothes.


BOILS:
Infections deeper within hair
follicles that leave large,
frequently red inflammations
(often occur on the face or
neck).


STIES:
Infection of the follicle
surrounding the eyelashes,
causing a sore red bump in
the eyelid.


IMPETIGO:
The infection kids often
get around their mouths
and noses that causes
blisters and red scabby
skin.


ABSCESSES:
Infection characterized
by pus and swelling that
can occur in the skin and
in any other organ.




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SECTION 8



FOOD
POISONING
AND
STAPH




Staph infection is also the leading
culprit behind cases of food poisoning,
and can be to blame for larger life
threatening conditions, such as:


Toxic Shock Syndrome
(TSS),

pneumonia,

bone infections
(osteomyelitis),

mastitis in
nursing mothers,

endocarditis
(infection of the
inside of the heart),

bacteremia
(blood infection).




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SECTION 9



PEOPLE
AT
RISK
FOR
STAPH




People who are otherwise healthy
typically do not usually become
severely ill from staph infections,
but those at special risk, who
have weakened immune systems,
include:


persons with chronic
illnesses, such as:
diabetes,
cancer,
lung disease,
kidney disease,
HIV/AIDS,

people with
various skin
conditions,

the elderly,

newborns,

people recovering
from major surgery,

injection drug users
(especially those who
reuse needles)

people whose immune
systems are weakened
due to:
steroid use,
radiation therapy,
cancer treatment,
immunosuppressive
medications,

women who are
breastfeeding.




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SECTION 10



CARE
TEST
FOR
STAPH




Health care professionals can
determine that staph (and not
some other bacteria) is the
cause of an infection by taking
a culture, (usually a swab from
what looks like a giant Q-tip)
from the infected site.

Once staph has been diagnosed,
the provider will prescribe
antibiotics that are known to
work on that specific strain
of the bacteria.

These antibiotics (usually either
pills or creams applied to the
infected body part) typically kill
the bacteria and cure the infection
within a week or two.

Hospitals are working to stamp out
staph infections, in part because
the majority of hospital patients
fall into at least one "at-risk"

category, but also because
drug-resistant strains of staph
(versions of the bacteria that
aren't killed by one or more of
the antibiotics that are commonly
used to treat staph infections)
are becoming an increasingly
common threat.


follow the directions
for any prescription
exactly.

take all of the medicine
prescribed,
(even if one feels better
after only a few days).

never save old, leftover
prescriptions for future
use.

never take anyone else's
prescription antibiotics.

Other preventative measures
are careful treatment of all
skin conditions, including
wound care after trauma or
surgery,
IV drug users taking
precautions when injecting,
and people with special risk
factors being attentive to
early symptoms of staph.




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SECTION 11



PREVENT
A STAPH
SKIN
INFECTION




Cleanliness and good hygiene are
the best way to protect yourself
against getting staph (and other)
infections.

You can help prevent staph skin
infections by washing your hands
frequently and by bathing or
showering daily.


Keep areas of
skin that have
been injured
such as:

cuts,

scrapes,

eczema,

rashes caused by
allergic reactions
or poison ivy,

clean and covered,

use any antibiotic ointments
or other treatments that your
doctor suggests.

If someone in your family
has a staph infection,

don't share towels,

sheets,

clothing until the
infection has been

fully treated.


If you develop a staph infection,
you can prevent spreading it to
other parts of your body by being
careful not to touch the infected
skin, keeping it covered whenever
possible, and using a towel only
once when you clean the area,
(wash the towel in hot water
afterwards or use disposable towels).




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SECTION 12



RESPIRATORY
DISEASES




Diseases of the mamalian Respiratory
system are classified physiologically
into obstructive (i.e. conditions
which impede the rate of flow into and
out of the lungs) and restrictive (i.e.
conditions which cause a reduction in
the functional volume of the lungs).

Anatomically, respiratory disease can
be classified into these categories;
upper and lower respiratory tract
(most commonly used in the context of
infectious respiratory disease),
parenchymal and vascular lung diseases.




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RESPIRATORY
DISEASES
LINKS




American Thoracic society
http://www.thoracic.org/

Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention

http://www.cdc.gov/

EMedicine
http://www.emedicine.com/

National Jewish Medical
and Research Center

http://www.njc.org/

Right Health
http://www.righthealth.com/



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SECTION 13



EPIDEMIC




In epidemiology, an epidemic is
a disease that appears as new
cases in a given human population,
during a given period, at a rate
that substantially exceeds what
is "expected", based on recent
experience (the number of new
cases in the population during a
specified period of time is called
the "incidence rate").


An epizootic is the
same thing but for
an animal population.


Defining an epidemic can be suggestive,
depending in part on what is "expected".
An epidemic may be restricted to one
locale (an outbreak), more general,

an "epidemic",
global pandemic.


Because it is based on what is "expected"
or thought normal, a few cases of a very
rare disease like rabies may be classified
as an "epidemic", while many cases of a
common disease (like the common cold)
would not.




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EPIDEMIC
LINKS




American Museum of
Natural History

http://www.amnh.org/

Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention

http://www.cdc.gov/

An Epidemic for Anyone
http://www.epidemic.org/

Kaiser Family Foundation
http://www.kff.org/



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SECTION 14



PANDEMIC




A pandemic is an epidemic,
an outbreak of an infectious
disease, that spreads across
a large region:
example a continent,
or even worldwide.

According to the
World Health Organization,
a pandemic can start when
three conditions have been
met:

The emergence of a disease
new to the population.

The agent infects humans,
causing serious illness.

The agent spreads easily
and sustainably among humans.


A disease or condition is not a
pandemic merely because it is
widespread or kills a large number
of people; it must also be infectious.

For example cancer is responsible for
a large number of deaths but is not
considered a pandemic because the
disease is not infectious (although
certain causes of some types of cancer
might be).




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WORLD
HEALTH
ORGANIZATION
PANDEMIC
PHASES



The World Health Organization (W.H.O)
has developed a global influenza
preparedness plan, which defines the
stages of a pandemic, outlines the
role of W.H.O, and makes recommendations
for national measures before and during
a pandemic.


The phases are:

Interpandemic period:

Phase 1:
No new influenza virus
subtypes have been
detected in humans.

Phase 2:
No new influenza virus
subtypes have been
detected in humans,
but an animal variant
threatens human disease.


Pandemic alert period

Phase 3:
Human infection(s)
with a new subtype
but no human-to-human
spread.

Phase 4:
Small cluster(s)
with limited localized
human-to-human
transmission.

Phase 5:
Larger cluster(s)
but human-to-human
spread still localized.


Pandemic period:

Phase 6:
Pandemic:
increased and
sustained transmission
in general population.



CDC:
Influenza Pandemic Phases

http://www.cdc.gov/flu/pandemic/phases.htm/



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PANDEMIC
LINKS




Pandemic Tool Kits
http://www.pandemictoolkit.com/

The Flu Wiki
http://www.fluwikie.com/

Safe Care Campaign
http://www.safecarecampaign.org/

Scientific American Magazine
http://www.sciam.com/

U.S. government's pandemic
flu and avian flu
information site

http://www.pandemicflu.gov/

The Vega Science Trust
http://www.vega.org.uk/


WORLD
HEALTH
ORGANIZATION

http://www.who.int/en/



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SECTION 15



HEPATITIS




Viruses,
chemicals,
drugs,
alcohol,
inherited diseases.




HEPATITIS
Hepatitis is an inflammation of
the liver that can be caused by
such things as viruses, chemicals,
drugs, alcohol, inherited diseases,
or the patientís own immune system.

This inflammation can be acute, flaring
up and then resolving within a few weeks
to months, or chronic, enduring over many
years.

Chronic hepatitis may simmer for 20 years
or more before causing significant symptoms
related to progressive liver damage such as
cirrhosis (scarring and loss of function),
liver cancer, or death.

The liver is a vital organ located in the
upper right-hand side of the abdomen. It
performs many functions in the body,
including processing the bodyís nutrients,
manufacturing bile to help digest fats,
synthesizing many important proteins,
regulating blood clotting, and breaking
down potentially toxic substances into
harmless ones that the body can use or
excrete.


Inflammation may (in severe cases)
interfere with these processes and
allow potentially toxic substances
to accumulate.




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SECTION 15A



VIRAL
HEPATITIS




The most common cause of hepatitis
is an infection with a virus. The
viruses primarily associated with
hepatitis are named in the order
of their discovery: A, B, C, D,
and E.



Hepatitis A:
is a liver disease caused by the
hepatitis A virus (HAV). Hepatitis
A can affect anyone.
In the United States, hepatitis A
can occur in situations ranging from
isolated cases of disease to widespread
epidemics.


Hepatitis B:
is a serious disease caused by a virus
that attacks the liver. The virus, which
is called hepatitis B virus (HBV), can
cause lifelong infection, cirrhosis
(scarring) of the liver, liver cancer,
liver failure, and death.


Hepatitis C:
is a liver disease caused by the
hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is
found in the blood of persons who
have the disease. HCV is spread by
contact with the blood of an
infected person.


Hepatitis D:
is a liver disease caused by the
hepatitis D virus (HDV), a defective
virus that needs the hepatitis B virus
to exist. Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is
found in the blood of persons infected
with the virus.


Hepatitis E:
is a liver disease caused by the
hepatitis E virus (HEV) transmitted
in much the same way as hepatitis A
virus.
Hepatitis E, however, does not occur
often in the United States.




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SECTION 15B



HEPATITIS
SYMPTOMS




The symptoms of hepatitis are the
same, regardless of the cause, but
vary from person to person and may
vary over time.

With acute hepatitis, many people
have few or mild symptoms that may
be mistaken for the flu.


These may include:
fatigue,
nausea,
loss of appetite,
fever,
abdominal pain.

Others may experience:
jaundice,
itching,
dark colored urine,
light colored stools.


A physical examination may reveal a
liver that is tender and enlarged.

Chronic hepatitis usually causes no
symptoms or may be noticeable as
only a loss of energy and tiredness.

In some people, chronic hepatitis can
gradually damage the liver and, after
many years, cause liver failure.

The chronic form typically lasts for
many years and only rarely goes away
without treatment.


Viral Hepatitis
The most common cause
of hepatitis is an
infection with a virus.


Hepatitis A:
is spread through infected water
and food that have been contaminated
with fecal material.


Hepatitis B:
is the most common cause of acute
viral hepatitis.
It can be spread by exposure to blood,
infected needles, through sexual
relations, and from mother to baby.


Hepatitis C:
is spread by exposure to contaminated
blood.


Hepatitis D and E:
are rare in the U.S. Hepatitis D only
causes an infection when hepatitis B is
present and can make that infection more
severe. It is usually spread by exposure
to blood or infected needles.

Hepatitis E is spread in a similar
fashion to hepatitis A and is found
primarily in Asia, Africa, and South
America.



Chemically-Induced
Hepatitis

The liver is responsible for the
metabolism of alcohol, drugs, and
environmental toxins.

It breaks them down into substances
that can be used and then excreted
by the body.

Some drugs or chemicals cause liver
damage whenever a person is exposed
to high levels of them.

Many drugs have the potential to
cause hepatitis in a few people,
in a seemingly random fashion.


Inherited Forms
of Hepatitis

Several inherited diseases can
become apparent primarily by
causing acute or chronic
hepatitis.

The most common of these is
hemochromatosis, an inherited
disease associated with the
accumulation of too much iron
in the body.


Non-Alcoholic
Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)
and Chronic Hepatitis

One of the most common causes of
chronic hepatitis is accumulation
of excess fat in the liver.


Autoimmune Hepatitis
Autoimmune hepatitis is usually a
chronic form of hepatitis that
frequently leads to progressive
damage of the liver; in about 25%
of cases, it may present like acute
hepatitis.

It is more common in women than men;
in fact, 70% of those affected are
female.

For reasons that are not fully
understood, the bodyís immune
system targets and attacks the
liver.




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HEPATITIS
LINKS




American Liver Foundation
http://www.liverfoundation.org/

Hepatitis C Connection
http://www.hepc-connection.org/

Hepatitis Directory.com
http://www.hepatitidirectory.com/

Hepatitis Foundation International
http://www.hepfi.org/

Hepatitis Information Network
http://www.hepnet.com/

HIV and Hepatitis.com
http://www.hivandhepatitis.com/

Wilsonís Disease Association
http://www.wilsonsdisease.org/



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SECTION 16



FLU
INFLUENZA




Influenza
"the flu":
its potential to cause
hospitalizations and
death is often
unappreciated.


Cold vs influenza:
What's the difference?


Although people tend to lump "colds"
and influenza (commonly called "the
flu") together, they really are
distinct infections, caused by
different viruses.

A very bad cold cannot turn into
influenza (although a person with
a cold could certainly come down
with influenza if he or she came
in contact with influenza virus).




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SECTION 16A



FLU
INFLUENZA
TRANSMISSION




How does someone get influenza?
Influenza the flu is very easy to
"catch" and is caused by a virus
that spreads from person to
person.

Influenza virus is usually spread
by the coughing and sneezing of
infected persons.

Unfortunately, people can transmit
infection before they realize that
they are ill.

In most cases, adults are infectious
from 1 to 2 days before they feel
sick until about 5 days after the
start of illness. Children can spread
infection even longerófrom 6 days
before the start of symptoms until at
least 10 days after.

The average incubation period between
when the virus infects a person and
when they feel sick is 2 days.


Influenza can infect:
nose,
throat,
lungs,

causing symptoms
such as:

fever,
coughing,
chills,
sore throat,
headache,
muscle aches.

Most people feel very sick for
several days, but recover as
their body's immune system
fights the infection.




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SECTION 16B



FLU
INFLUENZA
PREVENTION




What are your
options for
influenza
prevention?




For most people, getting immunized
against influenza is the easiest
and most effective way to reduce
their risk of infection.

With just one vaccination, once
a year, they can help protect
themselves and avoid spreading
infection to those who are unable
to receive the vaccine.




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SECTION 16C



FLU
TERMS




Seasonal Flu:
(or common) flu,
is a respiratory illness that
can be transmitted person to
person.

Most people have some immunity,
and a vaccine is available.


Avian Flu:
bird flu (AI)

is caused by influenza viruses
that occur naturally among wild
birds.

Low pathogenic AI is common in
birds and causes few problems.
H5N1 is highly pathogenic, deadly
to domestic fowl, and can be
transmitted from birds to humans.

There is no human immunity and
no vaccine is available.

Pandemic flu:
is virulent human flu that causes
a global outbreak, or pandemic, of
serious illness. Because there is
little natural immunity, the disease
can spread easily from person
to person.


Currently, there
is no pandemic flu.




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FLU
INFLUENZA
LINKS





Find A Flu Shot
http://www.findaflushot.com/

Influenza.com
http://www.influenza.com/

Pandemic Flu.gov
http://www.pandemicflu.gov/



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SECTION 17



BIOTECHNOLOGY




Biology,
agriculture,
food science,
medicine.




Biotechnology is technology based
on biology, especially when used
in agriculture, food science, and
medicine.


The UN Convention on
Biological Diversity
has come up with one
of many definitions
of biotechnology:

"Biotechnology means any
technological application
that uses:
biological systems,
living organisms,
or derivatives thereof,
to make or modify products
or processes for specific
use."




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BIOTECHNOLOGY
LINKS




BIO.COM
http://www.bio.com/

Bio-Tech Info
http://www.biotech-info.net/

Biotechnology Industry
Organization BIO

http://www.bio.org/

The Biotech Weblog
http://www.biotech-weblog.com/

GreeFacts
http://www.greenfacts.org/

StandardGlossary.com:
Biotechnology

http://www.standardglossary.com/biotechnology.htm/



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SECTION 18



INFECTIOUS
DISEASES
LINKS




28 STD Risk Calculators
http://www.calculators.org/health/std-risk.php

American Medical Association
http://www.ama-assn.org/

Center for Infectious Disease
Research and Policy CIDRAP

http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/

Cool Nurse
http://www.coolnurse.com/

Donít Sweat It
http://www.healthpromotion.ie/health/inner/dont_sweat_it

EMedicine Health
http://www.emedicinehealth.com/

Environmental Protection Agency EPA
http://www.epa.gov/

The Facts About Hand Washing and Hand Hygiene
http://www.b4brands.com/blog/facts-hand-washing-hygiene/

Foodborne Diseases Active
Surveillance Network (FoodNet)

http://www.fsis.usda.gov/



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Food and Drug Administration
http://www.fda.gov/

Food Safety
http://www.foodsafety.gov/

Go Ask Alice
http://www.goaskalice.columbia.edu/

Health On the
Net Foundation

http://www.hon.ch/

Health Protection Agency
Centre for Infections

http://www.hpa.org.uk/

Health line
http://www.healthline.com/

Home Hygiene
http://www.cleanitsupply.com/t/Home_Hygiene_Tips_Resources_and_Best_Practices_for_the_Prevention_of_the_Spread_of_Illnesses.aspx

Infectious Diseases
Society of America

http://www.idsociety.org/

The Journal of
Infectious Diseases

http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/JID/home.html/



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KidsHealth
http://www.kidshealth.org/

MayoClinic
http://www.mayoclinic.com/

medicinenet
http://www.medterms.com/

Medscape
http://www.medscape.com/

National Foundation for
Infectious Diseases, NFID

http://www.nfid.org/

National Institute of Allergy and
Infectious Diseases (NIAID)

http://www.niaid.nih.gov/

National Institutes of
Health (NIH)

http://www.nih.gov/

Occupational Safety
Health Administration

http://www.osha.gov/

Personal hygiene for cared-for people
http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/social-care-and-support-guide/Pages/hygiene-and-washing.aspx

Public Health Corps
http://publichealthcorps.org/

The Surprising Truth About Dogs and Disease
http://www.rover.com/blog/truth-dogs-disease/

Waterborne Illness and Swimming Pool Water
http://blog.intheswim.com/waterborne-illness-and-swimming-pool-water/

Water, Sanitation, & Environmentally-related Hygiene
http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/hygiene/body/

WEB MD
http://www.webmd.com/



WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION
http://www.who.int/en/




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