BASIC
HYGIENE




BASIC HYGIENE

PERSONAL GROOMING

PERSONAL HYGIENE

FOOD SAFETY

MEDICAL

STERILIZATION

OCCUPATION HYGIENE

HAND WASHING

SPREADING DISEASES

FEDAL-ORAL TRANSMISSION

RESPIRATORY SECRETIONS

BODY FLUIDS



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THINGS NOT TO DO

CHILDREN

SICK CHILDREN

HYGIENE KITS

SKIN HYGIENE

FOOT HYGIENE

DENTAL HYGIENE

EAR HYGIENE

NAIL HYGIENE

MALE HYGIENE

EYE HYGIENE

HYGIENE LINKS



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SECTION 1



BASIC
HYGIENE




Clean, wash, washing, soap and water,
Dental, Hygiene, Education, Hygienist,
Infection, hand washing, handwash,
food borne illness, hand, hands, health,
Water borne Disease, grooming, travel.




BASIC
HYGIENE


Hygiene is the maintenance
of healthful practices.
In modern terminology, this
is usually regarded as a
particular reference to
cleanliness.

Hygiene and Good Habits are
commonly understood as the
preventing of infection
through cleanliness.

In broader call, scientific
terms hygiene is the maintenance
of health and healthy living.


Hygiene ranges from:

personal hygiene,

through domestic
up to
occupational hygiene
and public health;

and involves:
healthy diet,
cleanliness,
mental health.




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SECTION 2



PERSONAL
GROOMING




PERSONAL
GROOMING


personal grooming/grooming means
to enhance one's physical appearance
or appeal for others, by removing
obvious imperfections in one's
appearance or improving one's
hygiene.

Grooming in humans typically includes
bathroom activities such as primping:

washing and cleansing the hair,
combing it to extract tangles
and snarls, and styling.

It can also include cosmetic care of
the body, such as shaving and other
forms of depilation.




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SECTION 3



PERSONAL
HYGIENE




PERSONAL
HYGIENE


Daily washing of
the body and hair.

More frequent washing
of hands and/or face.

Oral hygiene,
Daily brushing,
flossing teeth.

Cleaning of the clothes
and living area.

General avoidance
of bodily fluids
such as:
feces,
urine,
vomit.

Not touching animals
before eating.

Avoidance of direct
or indirect contact
with unhygienic people.

Holding a tissue over
the mouth or using the
upper arm/elbow region
when coughing or sneezing,
not a bare hand.
Alternatively, washing
hands afterwards.

Suppression of habits
such as nose-picking,
touching the face etc.

Not licking fingers
before picking up
sheets of paper.

Not biting nails.




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SECTION 4



FOOD
SAFETY




FOOD
SAFETY


Maintain good food
and cooking hygiene
to prevent food
poisoning.

Cleaning of food
preparation areas
and equipment for
example using the
designated cutting
boards for preparing
raw meats and
vegetables.

Thorough cooking
of meats.

Institutional dish
sanitizing.

Washing of hands
after touching
uncooked food when
preparing meals.

Not using the same
utensils to prepare
different foods.

Non-sharing of cutlery
when eating.

Not licking fingers or
hands while or after
eating.

Proper storage of food
so as to prevent the
contamination by vermin.

Refrigeration of foods
(and avoidance of certain
foods in environments
where refrigeration is or
was not feasible).

Labeling food to indicate
when it was produced (or,
as food manufacturers prefer,
to indicate its best before
date).

Disposal of uneaten food and
packaging.




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SECTION 5



MEDICAL




MEDICAL

Use of bandaging
and dressing of
wounds.

Use of protective
clothing such as:
masks,
gowns,
caps,
eyewear,
gloves.

Sterilization of
instruments used
in surgical procedures.

Safe disposal of
medical waste.




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SECTION 5A



STERILIZATION




STERILIZATION

Sterilization of
instruments used
by hairdressers.

Sterilization by
autoclave of the
instruments used
in body piercing
and tattoo marking.

Sterilization of
instruments used
in the surgical
procedures.

Safe disposal of
medical waste.




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SECTION 5B



OCCUPATIONAL
HYGIENE




OCCUPATIONAL
HYGIENE


Occupational hygiene
is about:
recognising,
evaluating,
controlling,
health hazards
arising from work.




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SECTION 6



HAND
WASHING




HAND
WASHING


When done correctly,
handwashing is the
single most effective
way to prevent the
spread of communicable
diseases.

Good handwashing technique
is easy to learn and can
significantly reduce the
spread of infectious diseases
among both children and adults.

There's probably more to good
handwashing than you think, so
take your time and do it right:

by rubbing your hands vigorously
with soapy water, you pull soils
and the oily dirt away from your
skin.
The lather traps the dirt and
germs so they can be rinsed away.

Lather with soap for at least 20
seconds. Wash the front and back
of your hands, between your fingers
and under your nails.

Rinse your hands well under
warm running water and dry
them completely with a clean
towel.

You can be extra careful by using a
clean paper towel to turn off the
water and then throwing it away.


The water temp
should be 110°F.




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SECTION 6A



SPREADING
DISEASES




Handwashing can stop three
of the main ways in which
diseases spread between people:




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SECTION 6B



FECAL-ORAL
TRANSMISSION




FECAL-ORAL
TRANSMISSION


Fecal-oral transmission.
This refers to diseases
we get by ingesting fecal
material also called:
stool,
excrement,
poop, etc.

Which happens more often
than we'd like to imagine,
usually because someone
forgets to wash their hands
after using the toilet and
then touches food, drinks
or other items.
The germs are transferred
to others who touch those
items later.
Many types of microbe are
transmitted this way,
including:


salmonellosis,
shigellosis,
hepatitis A,
giardiasis,
enterovirus,
amebiasis,
campylobacteriosis.




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SECTION 6C



RESPIRATORY
SECRETIONS




RESPIRATORY
SECRETIONS


Indirect contact with
respiratory secretions.

Many diseases are spread
indirectly by infected
people who cough or sneeze
into their hands, leaving
respiratory discharges that
can be picked up by other
people when they touch or
shake hands.


Sneezers,

coughers,

wash your hands!


The rest of us need to remember
to wash our hands after touching
anyone who has been coughing and
sneezing.


Influenza (flu),

Streptococcus,

Respiratory syncytial
virus (RSV),

the common cold,


are just a few of the
illnesses that can
spread this way.




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SECTION 6D



BODY
FLUIDS




BODY
FLUIDS


Contact with body fluids.
Urine, saliva and other
moist body substances can
spread microbes including:


cytomegalovirus,
typhoid,
staphylococcal
organisms,
Epstein-Barr virus.


These germs can be transmitted
from person to person or
indirectly by contamination
of food or objects such as
toys.




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SECTION 7



THINGS
NOT
TO DO




THINGS
NOT
TO DO:


1. Don't use a single
damp cloth to wash
a group of children's
hands.

2. Don't use a standing
basin of water to
rinse hands.

3. Don't use a hand
towel used by others.
Use disposable towels
in day care or food
preparation settings.

4. Don't use sponges or
non-disposable cleaning
cloths unless you launder
them on a regular basis,
adding chlorine bleach to
the wash water.




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SECTION 8



CHILDREN




CHILDREN

Encourage
children to
wash hands:

before eating,

after playing
outdoors,

playing with
pets,

after using
the bathroom,

after blowing
their noses.


Even though hands might
look clean, they often
carry germs or other
microorganisms that are
capable of causing many
disease.

Don't assume that kids
know how to wash their
hands properly.

Showing and helping them,
especially in a day care
setting, is the best way
to form good habits in
children.




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SECTION 8A



WHEN
SHOULD
YOUR CHILD
STAY
HOME




WHEN
SHOULD
YOUR CHILD
STAY
HOME


Simply put, children become
sick after being exposed to
other sick children.

Some guidelines
to follow are:


When your child has a temperature
higher than 100 degrees, then keep
him/her at home.
A fever is a sign of potentially
contagious infection, even if the
child feels fine.
Schools often advise keeping the
child at home until a fever-free
period has existed for 24 hours.

When other children in the day care
facility have a known contagious
infection, such as:

chicken pox,
strep throat,
conjunctivitis,
keep your child at home.


Children taking antibiotics should
be kept at home until they have
taken the medicine for one or two
days.

If your child is vomiting or has
diarrhea, the young patient should
not be around other children.
Other signs of illness are an
inability to:

take fluids,
weakness,
lethargy,
sunken eyes,
a depressed soft
spot on top of
infant’s head,
crying without
tears,
dry mouth.




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SECTION 9



HYGIENE
KITS




HYGIENE
KITS


soap,
toothbrush,
toothpaste,
washcloth or hand towel,
deodorant,
comb,
shampoo,
tissues,
hand sanitizers,
feminine hygiene products.




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SECTION 10



SKIN
HYGIENE




SKIN
HYGIENE


Basic Skin Care:
Taking good care of the skin
involves a few basic steps.
Dermatologists recommend that
a person wash the face two
times a day with a mild soap
or gentle cleanser.
It is best to avoid washing
too often, as the skin will
become irritated and dry out.

If too much of the skin's
natural oil is washed away,
the skin may become very dry
and begin to itch and flake.

Because the skin's natural
process is interrupted, the
skin may begin to produce
more oil than usual, which
can cause more breakouts.


Dermatologists also
recommend the following
for clean, healthy skin:


Use lotions only if needed,
and use ones that are
oil-free and water-based.

Try to identify what irritates
the skin; if it's stress, try
to reduce stress levels.

Leave pimples alone; picking,
popping, or squeezing them
will only make them worse.

Have only a dermatologist
remove or extract pimples.

Try to avoid touching
the face.

Keep hands clean by washing
them often.

Try to stay out of the sun,
and use a sunscreen every day
during summer and winter.




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SECTION 11



FOOT
HYGIENE




FOOT
HYGIENE


The American Academy of
Dermatology recommends
the following steps to
prevent athlete's foot.

Wash feet every day.

Be sure to dry feet
thoroughly, especially
in between the toes.

Only wear socks made of
cotton, and change them
if they get moist or
damp.

Go barefoot when at home.

Try to wear sandals, and
avoid tight shoes in warm
weather.

If possible, use an
antifungal powder
in shoes.




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SECTION 12



DENTAL
HYGIENE




DENTAL
HYGIENE


Dental problems can be
prevented by regularly
using a toothbrush and
dental floss, the tools
for good teeth.



Brushing:
There are many important
reasons to brush the teeth
every day.
Brushing removes the plaque
(a sticky film of bacteria
that grows around the teeth)
that causes tooth decay, or
cavities.
Brushing also helps keep
gums healthy and breath
fresh.

To keep your mouth moist, be
sure to consume plenty of
water not coffee, soft drinks
or alcohol.

Chewing gum:
(preferably sugarless)
sucking on candy
(preferably sugarless)
also stimulates saliva,
washing away food particles
and bacteria.

If you have chronic dry mouth,
your dentist or physician may
additionally prescribe an
artificial saliva preparation
or an oral medication that
stimulates the flow of saliva.

Use a fairly new toothbrush.
Change your toothbrush every
three to four months, and
choose a soft-bristled
toothbrush.

Schedule regular dental checkups.
At least twice a year, see your
dentist to have your teeth or
dentures examined and cleaned.

You can teach your school-age
children to brush and floss their
teeth regularly and to brush their
tongue to prevent bad breath.

However, don't give children
mouthwash to use, because many
mouthwash products contain alcohol
and can pose a risk for children
if they swallow the liquid




ORAL
PROBLEMS


Gingivitis
Periodontitis
Dry mouth
Type 1 diabetes
Hiatal hernia
Strep throat
Tonsillitis
Canker sore




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SECTION 13



EAR
HYGIENE




EAR
HYGIENE


The ears consist
of three parts:
the outer ear,
the middle ear,
the inner ear.


In terms of hygiene, people need
only be concerned with the outer
ear.
The outer ear consists of the pinna,
the part that is visible, and the ear
canal that leads toward the eardrum
that separates the outer ear from the
middle and inner ear.

The ear canal is self-cleaning. Wax is
secreted into the ear canal by glands
that are found in the skin of the canal.

This wax and other particles, such as
dust, travel down the ear canal and are
washed away or fall out to make room for
new wax being made.
It is not necessary to use cotton swabs
to clean the ear canal.
In fact, using them can harm the ear by
pushing wax toward the eardrum, where it
can get stuck and cause blockage or an
ear infection.

While cleaning the pinna and behind the
ear is good hygiene, the rest of the ear
will usually take care of itself.


Removing Excess Earwax:

When earwax is pushed toward the eardrum,
or when an abnormal amount of wax is
produced in the ear canal, sometimes it's
necessary for people to have the wax
removed by a doctor.
Excessive earwax can affect hearing and
feel very uncomfortable. A doctor will
most likely perform ear irrigation in
these cases.
Ear irrigation is a process in which
warm water is gently flushed into the
ear canal so that the earwax can dislodge
and rinse away with the water.




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SECTION 14



NAIL
HYGIENE




NAIL
HYGIENE


Keeping Nails Clean and Neat:

Nails should always be kept clean
and neatly trimmed or filed. Dirt
and bacteria can get trapped in
nails that aren't clean.
As with the hands, nails are a way
for bacteria to be passed from
person to person.
Preventing the spread of bacteria
prevents the spread of illness and
infection.
Nails that are excessively long can,
by virtue of their length, hold more
dirt than shorter nails. Those with
longer nails, then, need to be more
diligent about keeping their nails
clean.
Hangnails (loose skin near the base
of the nail) should be carefully
trimmed with a cuticle clipper and
the area kept clean to prevent
infections.




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SECTION 15



MALE
HYGIENE




MALE
HYGIENE


Boys should wash their genitals
every day. This includes washing
the penis, the scrotum which holds
the testicles, the anus, and pubic
hair (if puberty has been reached)
with water and mild soap.
For cleanliness after urinating,
the penis should be shaken gently
until the few remaining drops of
urine are expelled. It may be
wiped as well.
Following a bowel movement, the
anus should be wiped. Covering
public toilet seats with toilet
paper is also recommended since
bacteria grows easily on toilet
seats.
Washing hands after urinating is
a must, otherwise, bacteria will
be spread via the hands.

As well as washing and wiping the
genitals, males should be concerned
with the kind of underwear and pants
they wear.
Underwear or pants should not be
too tight, and they should be well
ventilated to help stem bacteria
growth.
If underwear gets wet or soiled,
it should be changed.
Also, towels should not be shared
since they can pass bacteria.


JOCK ITCH:

Jock itch, or groin ringworm, is a
fungal infection (caused by certain
fungi and yeasts) that usually occurs
in warm weather.
It is caused by wearing tight clothes
that are not well ventilated.


The symptoms include:
redness,
blisters,
itchiness,
pain of the
groin and upper,
inner thigh area.


This type of infection can easily recur
if not taken care of properly. A variety
of over-the-counter creams are available
to remedy jock itch.




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SECTION 16



EYE
HYGIENE




EYE
HYGIENE


Daily eye care is important to
maintain healthy eyes, even if
your eyes are healthy and your
vision good.
Proper hygiene and preventive
eye care will help you avoid
problems like:
irritations,
eyestrain,
infection,
injuries.

Avoid touching your
eyes with dirty hands.

Wash your hands regularly,
especially after going to
the bathroom, coughing into
your hands, or blowing your
nose.

It is also important to
wash your hands after
handling contaminated
food such as raw
chicken or raw meat.

To prevent an infection
in your eyes wash your
hands after taking care
of someone who is ill.



LID HYGIENE
1. Soak a clean washcloth
in warm water and wring out.

2. Apply the moist, warm
cloth across both eyes for
5-10 minutes.

3. Wrap the washcloth around
your index finger and massage
the base of the eyelashes with
warm water.

4. Rinse both eyes with warm
water.

5. If desired, cleanse the lid
margins with diluted no-tears
baby shampoo, or with specially
formulated cleansing pads,
(available over the counter).

6. Repeat this process when you
wake up and at bedtime.




Hygieia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hygieia




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SECTION 17



HYGIENE
LINKS




All About My Vagina
http://www.myvag.net/

American Journal of Tropical
Medicine and Hygiene

http://www.ajtmh.org/

American Society of Tropical
Medicine and Hygiene

http://www.astmh.org/

Armenian Medical Network
http://www.health.am/

Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention

http://www.cdc.gov/

Dental Hygiene Education
http://www.dhed.net/

EHEALTH MD
http://www.ehealthmd.com/

eMedicine
http://www.emedicine.com/


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E. N. T. NET
http://www.entnet.org/

Girl Stuff News
http://www.girlstuff.com/

GROWING LIFESTYLE
http://www.growinglifestyle.com/

Handwashing Facts
http://www.handwashingfacts.com/

Healthline
http://www.healthline.com/

Hygiene, Sanitation, and Water in Schools projects
http://www.wsp.org/Hygiene-Sanitation-Water-Toolkit/index.html

National Institute of Allergy
and Infectious Diseases

http://www.niaid.nih.gov/

NewWoman. Net
http://www.newwomen.net/

PersonalMD.com
http://www.personalmd.com/


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Scarleteen.com
http://www.scarleteen.com/

Sensual Service
http://www.sensual-service.com/

UTMB Heath Care
http://www.utmbhealthcare.org/

Vagisil Women’s Health Center
http://www.vagisil.com/

NetWellness
http://www.netwellness.org/



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