GASIFICATION
BIOMASS
SYNGAS




GAS

GASIFICATION

STIRLING ENGINES

GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES COUNCIL GTC

GASIFICATION LINKS



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SECTION 1



GAS




Gas is one of the four major states of matter,
consisting of freely moving atoms or molecules
without a definite shape and without a definite
volume.

Compared to the solid and liquid states of matter
a gas has lower density and a lower viscosity.

The volume of a gas will change with changes in
temperature or pressure, as described by the ideal
gas law.
A gas also has the characteristic that it will
diffuse readily, spreading apart in order to
niformly fill the space of any container.



Gas
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas



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SECTION 2



GASIFICATION




Gasification is a process that converts
carbonaceous materials, such as coal,
petroleum, or biomass, into carbon
monoxide and hydrogen by reacting the
raw material at high temperatures with
a controlled amount of oxygen.

The resulting gas mixture is called
synthesis gas or syngas and is itself
a fuel.

Gasification is a very efficient method
for extracting energy from many different
types of organic materials, and also has
applications as a clean waste disposal
technique.



ADVANTAGES OF GASIFICATION:

The advantage of gasification is that using
the syngas is more efficient than direct
combustion of the original fuel; more of the
energy contained in the fuel is extracted.

Syngas may be burned directly in internal
combustion engines, used to produce methanol
and hydrogen, or converted via the Fischer-
Tropsch process into synthetic fuel.

Gasification can also begin with materials
that are not otherwise useful fuels, such
as biomass or organic waste.

In addition, the high-temperature combustion
refines out corrosive ash elements such as
chloride and potassium, allowing clean gas
production from otherwise problematic fuels.

Gasification of fossil fuels is currently
widely used on industrial scales to generate
electricity.

However, almost any type of organic material
can be used as the raw material for gasification,
such as wood, biomass, or even plastic waste.

Thus, gasification may be an important technology
for renewable energy.
In particular biomass gasification is carbon neutral.

Gasification relies on chemical processes at elevated
temperatures >700C, which distinguishes it from
biological processes such as anaerobic digestion that
produce biogas.



Gasification
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gasification



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SECTION 3



STIRLING
ENGINES




LOWEST MAINTENANCE:

Stirling engine combined with simple updraft
gasification for power production from biomass.



Plant description:

Wood chips enters the top of a conventional
updraft gasifier, which basically consists
of a reactor with air and recirculated flue
gas entering at the bottom.

The updraft gasification process is simple
and reliable and delivers a combustible gas
directly to a specially designed combustion
chamber where the Stirling engine is mounted.

No gas cleaning or gas conditioning devices
are needed. The Stirling engine produces
electrical power from the heat.
The remaining heat in the flue gas is used
to preheat the combustion air and to heat
district heating water in the economizer.

Heat is also generated in the engine and
delivered to the heating grid.
Only effluents of the system are the cooled
flue gas with low levels of CO and NOx and
the ash leaving the bottom of the gasifier.



Advantages:

The system is ideal for small scale power
production.

Easily controllable gas combustion with
low emissions and high system efficiencies.

Fully automatic operation.

No wood gas cleaning or flue gas filtration
necessary.

Few components.

Proven technology with thousands of production
hours on both engine and gasifier.

Flexible fuel requirements (standard design is
for wood chips up to 55% moist.



Reliability:

The engine is designed for low maintenance and
long life time.
The engine is hermetically sealed and is designed
for service intervals up to 8000 hrs.

The biomass handling system and combustion chamber
are based on conventional technology.

Maintenance and operating costs are comparable to
an ordinary biomass boiler of same size.

The heater panel is designed for biomass combustion.



GERMAN BIOENERGY SOLUTIONS
http://www.bhkw-anlagen.com/



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SECTION 4



GASIFICATION
TECHNOLOGIES
COUNCIL
GTC




Gasification Technologies Council (GTC)
was created in 1995 to promote a better
understanding of the role Gasification
can play in providing the power, chemical
and refining industries with economically
competitive technology options to produce
electricity, fuels and chemicals in an
environmentally superior manner.



Gasification Technologies Council (GTC)
http://www.gasification.org/



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SECTION 5



GASIFICATION
BIOMASS
SYNGAS
LINKS




BIOMASS ENERGY CENTRE
http://www.biomassenergycentre.org.uk/

Biomass Program
http://www1.eere.energy.gov/biomass/small_modular_gasification.html/

Fahrenheit Technologies
http://www.fahrenheittech.com/

Gasification Technologies Council (GTC)
http://www.gasification.org/

Heat Transfer International
http://www.heatxfer.com/

Pyrolysis and Gasification Factsheet
http://www.juniper.co.uk/

Royal Society of New Zealand
http://www.rsnz.org/

THERMOSELECT
http://www.thermoselect.com/

Green Trust
http://www.green-trust.org/

WOOD GAS
http://www.woodgas.com/

Wood Gas Producers
http://highforest.tripod.com/woodgas/woodgas.html/

A Wood Gas Stove
http://www.garlington.biz/Ray/WoodGasStove/



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