FOOD FOREST
FOREST GARDENING
MAYA FOREST GARDENING




WHAT IS A FOOD ROREST?

FOOD GARDENING

SEVEN-LAYER SYSTEM

NINE LAYERS OF EDIBLE FOREST GARDEN

FOOD ROREST LINKS



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SECTION 1



WHAT IS A
FOOD FOREST?




A food forest mimics a forest edge that is planted with edible plants.
Picture all of the vertical layers of a forest growing together: Tall
trees, small trees, shrubs, herbs, and ground covers. Tall, canopy
trees grow inward from the edge. Correspondingly, smaller trees peek
out from underneath the tall trees to catch the sun’s rays. Shrubs
step farther out into the sunshine, along with herbs, flowers, and
ground covers blanketing the sunniest edge.

A typical forest edge can look a little busy. Sometimes vines grow up
the trees and mushrooms grow under the tallest trees in the shade. All
of these layers of the forest stack together, each situated for
sufficient sun exposure. Intertwined, they produce a vibrant, productive,
low-maintenance, and relatively self-maintaining ecosystem.

A healthy forest doesn’t need humans to weed or fertilize.



What is a Food Forest?
https://www.tenthacrefarm.com/2017/07/create-food-forest/



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SECTION 2



FOREST
GARDENING




A Forest Garden is a designed agronomic system based on trees, shrubs
and perennial plants. These are mixed in such a way as to mimic the
structure of a natural forest – the most stable and sustainable type
of ecosystem in this climate.

The crops which are produced will often include fruits, nuts, edible
leaves, spices, medicinal plant products, poles, fibres for tying,
basketry materials, honey, fuelwood, fodder, mulches, game, sap
products. Forest gardens (often called home gardens) have been used
for millennia in tropical regions, where they still often form a
major part of the food producing systems which people rely on, even
if they work elsewhere for much of the time. They may also provide
useful sources of extra income. Their use is intimately linked with
prevailing socio-economic conditions. They are usually small in area,
often 0.1-1 hectares (0.25-2.5 acres).


The key features which contribute to the stability and self-sustaining
nature of this system are:

The large number of species used, giving great diversity.

The careful inclusion of plants which increase fertility, such as
nitrogen fixers (eg. Alders [Alnus spp], Broom [, Elaeagnus spp,
and shrub lupins [Lupinus arboreus]).

The use of dynamic accumulators – deep rooting plants which can tap
mineral sources deep in the subsoil and raise them into the topsoil
layer where they become available to other plants, eg. Coltsfoot
[Petasites spp], Comfreys [Symphytum spp], Liquorice [Glycyrrhiza spp],
Sorrel (and docks!) [Rumex spp].

The use of plants specially chosen for their ability to attract
predators of common pests, eg umbellifers like tansy.

The use, where possible, of pest and disease resistant varieties,
eg. apples.

The increasing role of tree cover and leaf litter which improve
nutrient cycling and drought resistance.



Forest Gardening
https://www.agroforestry.co.uk/about-agroforestry/forest-gardening/



Forest Garden
https://www.instructables.com/id/Forest-Gardening/




Creating a Food Forest
Step by Step Guide

https://permacultureapprentice.com/creating-a-food-forest-step-by-step-guide/




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SECTION 3



SEVEN-LAYER
SYSTEM




Robert Hart pioneered a system based on the observation that
the natural forest can be divided into distinct levels. He
used intercropping to develop an existing small orchard of
apples and pears into an edible polyculture landscape
consisting of the following layers:

1.‘Canopy layer’ consisting of the original mature fruit trees.

2.‘Low-tree layer’ of smaller nut and fruit trees on dwarfing
root stocks.

3.‘Shrub layer’ of fruit bushes such as currants and berries.

4.‘Herbaceous layer’ of perennial vegetables and herbs.

5.‘Rhizosphere’ or ‘underground’ dimension of plants grown for
their roots and tubers.

6.‘Ground cover layer’ of edible plants that spread horizontally.

7.‘Vertical layer’ of vines and climbers.



Forest gardening
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forest_gardening



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SECTION 4



NINE LAYERS
OF THE EDIBLE
FOREST GARDEN




1. Canopy/Tall Tree Layer
2. Sub-Canopy/Large Shrub Layer
3. Shrub Layer
4. Herbaceous Layer
5. Groundcover/Creeper Layer
6. Underground Layer
7. Vertical/Climber Layer
8. Aquatic/Wetland Layer
9. Mycelial/Fungal Layer



Nine Layers of the Edible Forest Garden
http://tcpermaculture.com/site/2013/05/27/nine-layers-of-the-edible-forest-garden/



Food Forest
Plant Finder

http://foodforestfinder.com/finder/




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SECTION 5



FOOD ROREST
FOOD GARDENING
LINKS




The Apios Institute
https://apiosinstitute.org/

Beacon Food Forest
https://beaconfoodforest.org/

Creating a Food Forest
https://permacultureapprentice.com/creating-a-food-forest-step-by-step-guide/

Create a Food Forest for a Low-Maintenance Garden
https://www.tenthacrefarm.com/2017/07/create-food-forest/

Designing a Forest Garden: The Seven-Layer Garden
https://www.chelseagreen.com/2014/designing-a-forest-garden-the-seven-story-garden/

Edible Forest Gardens
http://www.nofa.org/tnf/sp02/supplement/edible.php

Edible Forest Gardens
http://tcpermaculture.com/site/2016/03/01/permaculture-basics-edible-forest-gardens/

Edible forest gardening
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/gardening/3345117/Edible-forest-gardening.html

Edible Forest Gardens.com
http://edibleforestgardens.com/

El Pilar
https://www.liveandinvestoverseas.com/infocus-belize/el-pilar-the-worlds-first-sustainable-city-built-by-the-maya/



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El Pilar Forest Garden Network
http://www.mayaforestgardeners.org/

Establishing a Food Forest
https://vergepermaculture.ca/2014/08/12/establishing-a-food-forest-free-livestream-with-geoff-lawton/

Establishing a Food Forest Garden: Planting Density
http://lilliehouse.blogspot.com/2015/04/establishing-food-forest-garden.html

Establishing a Food Forest With Chickens
https://realfarmacy.com/a-forest-full-of-food/

Establishing a Permaculture Based Food Forest
https://www.secretenergy.com/blog/establishing-a-permaculture-based-food-forest/

FIESTA EL PILAR
http://www.news.ucsb.edu/2007/012316/fiesta-celebrating-maya-forest-garden

The Food Forest
https://www.foodforest.com.au/

Food Forest
http://permaculturecairns.com/FoodForest.html

Food Forest Farm
http://www.foodforestfarm.com/

Food Forest Farm at Sigar Highlands, Malaysia
https://foodforestfarmsigar.wordpress.com/

FOOD FOREST GARDENS PLANTING GUIDE
http://www.thedesertecho.com/blog/food-forest-gardens-planting-guide/



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Forest gardens
http://www.permaculture.org.uk/forestgardens

The garden of the future?
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2007/dec/06/ethicalliving.conservation

Forest Gardening for Personal Food Security
https://forgardening.org/gardening/forest-gardening/

Forest Gardening – How To Grow A Food Forest
https://www.smilinggardener.com/organic-gardening-advice/forest-gardening/

How to Farm a Forest—and Feed a Neighborhood
https://www.nationalgeographic.com/people-and-culture/food/the-plate/2016/october/forest-garden-feast-features-gluten-free-acorn-bread/

How to Grow a Food Forest
http://www.atitlanorganics.com/blog/2017/11/6/how-to-grow-a-food-forest

How to Plant a Food Forest
http://www.farmxchange.org/farming-4-change-how-to-plant-a-food-forest/

How to Plant a Food Forest This Winter
https://modernfarmer.com/2017/02/plant-food-forest-winter/

Maya Forest
https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/latin-america/mexico/maya-forest/mexico-harvesting-the-flavors-of-the-maya-forest/

Maya Forest Gardens
http://www.marc.ucsb.edu/research/maya-forest-is-a-garden/maya-forest-gardens

Origins of the Maya Forest Garden
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232690918_Origins_of_the_Maya_Forest_Garden_Maya_Resource_Management



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Permaculture Institute
https://permaculture.org/

Plant an Edible Forest Garden
http://www.motherearthnews.com/Homesteading-and-Self-Reliance/2007-08-01/Plant-Edible-Forest-Garden-Permaculture.aspx

Permaculture: Build Your Own Food Forest
https://www.hobbyfarms.com/permaculture-food-forest-farm/

Permaculture and Food Forest Gardens- Native Plant Talk Series
https://halifaxgardennetwork.wordpress.com/2012/05/08/garden-talk-permaculture-and-food-forest-gardens/

Vegetable, Fruit and Herb Gardening Guide
https://garden.org/learn/library/foodguide/

What is a forest garden?
https://www.treehugger.com/lawn-garden/what-forest-garden.html

What is a forest garden?
https://www.earth-ways.co.uk/resources/what-is-forest-gardening/

What is a forest garden?
https://www.gardeningknowhow.com/special/spaces/edible-forest-garden-plants.htm

Why Food Forests?
https://permaculturenews.org/2011/10/21/why-food-forests/



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APPROPEDIA
SUSTAINABILITY
INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

http://www.appropedia.org/




The Plant Encyclopedia
http://theplantencyclopedia.org/wiki/Main_Page





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