EMERGENCY
DISASTER
FIRST
AID




Emergency: is a situation that poses
an immediate threat to human life or
that of serious damage to property.




FIRST AID

SAFETY

FORMS OF EMERGENCY

DISASTER EMERGENCY KITS

BASIC FIRST AID KITS 1

BASIC FIRST AID KITS 2

PERSONAL FIRST AID KITS

EMERGENCY AID STATION KITS

EMERGENCY/DISASTER LINKS



BACK TO TOP



SECTION 1



FIRST
AID




First aid is the immediate and temporary
aid provided to a sick or injured person
or animal until medical treatment can be
provided.
It generally consists of series of simple,
life-saving medical techniques that a
non-doctor or lay person can be trained
to perform with minimal equipment.




BACK TO TOP



SECTION 2



SAFETY




Safety is the state of being safe, the
condition of being protected against:


Physical,
Social,
Spiritual,
Financial,
Political,
Emotional,
Occupational,
Psychological,


or other types or consequences of failure,
damage, error, accidents, harm or any other
event which could be considered dangerous.
Protection is from both the cause and from
exposure to something that is not safe.

It can include physical protection or that of
possessions. Safety is often in relation to
some guarantee of a standard of insurance to
the quality and unharmful function of a thing
or organization.
It is used in order to ensure that the thing
or organization will do only what it is wanted
to do.




BACK TO TOP



SECTION 3



FORMS OF
EMERGENCY




Forms of emergency:

crime such as a violent
crime in progress;

fire;
maritime emergency;
medical emergency;
natural disasters such as:
earthquake;
flood;
tornado;
tsunami;
volcanic eruption;

man-made disasters such as:
structural collapse whether by fire,
explosion (unintentional or by terrorism),
or poor design,

aviation;
road collision;

state of emergency declared by a government
during some disaster such as a terrorist
attack or declaration of war.




BACK TO TOP



SECTION 4



DISASTER
EMERGENCY
KITS




There are six basics you should stock for your home:

1. WATER,
2. FOOD,
3. FIRST AID SUPPLIES,
4. CLOTHING AND BEDDING,
5. TOOLS AND EMERGENCY SUPPLIES,
6. SPECIAL ITEMS.


You want to keep the items that you would most
likely need during an evacuation in an easy-to
carry container. suggested items are marked
with an asterisk(*). Possible containers include
a large, covered trash container, a camping
backpack, or a duffle bag.




WATER

Store water in plastic containers such as soft drink bottles.
Avoid using containers that will decompose or break, such as
milk cartons or glass bottles. A normally active person needs
to drink at least two quarts of water each day. Hot environments
and intense physical activity can double that amount. Children,
nursing mothers, and ill people will need more.


Store one gallon of water per person per day. Keep at least a
three-day supply of water per person (two quarts for drinking,
two quarts for each person in your household for food
preparation and sanitation).




FOOD

Store at least a three-day supply of non-perishable food.
Select foods that require no refrigeration, preparation
or cooking, and little or no water. If you must heat food,
pack a can of sterno. Select food items that are compact
and lightweight. Include a selection of the following foods
in your Disaster Supplies Kit:
Ready-to-eat canned meats, fruits, and vegetables
Canned juices
Staples (salt, sugar, pepper, spices, etc.)
High energy foods
Vitamins
Food for infants
Comfort and stress foods




FIRST AID KIT

Assemble a first aid kit for your home and one for each car.
(20) adhesive bandages, various sizes.
(1) 5" x 9" sterile dressing.
(1) conforming roller gauze bandage.
(2) triangular bandages.
(2) 3 x 3 sterile gauze pads.
(2) 4 x 4 sterile gauze pads.
(1) roll 3" cohesive bandage.
(2) germicidal hand wipes or waterless alcohol-based hand sanitizer.
(6) antiseptic wipes.
(2) pair large medical grade non-latex gloves.
Adhesive tape, 2" width.
Anti-bacterial ointment.
Cold pack.
Scissors (small, personal).
Tweezers.
CPR breathing barrier, such as a face shield.


NON-PRESCRIPTION DRUGS

Aspirin or nonaspirin pain reliever
Anti-diarrhea medication
Antacid (for stomach upset)
Syrup of Ipecac (use to induce vomiting if advised by the
Poison Control Center
Laxative
Activated charcoal
(use if advised by the Poison Control Center)




TOOLS AND SUPPLIES

Mess kits, or paper cups, plates, and plastic utensils*
Emergency preparedness manual*
Battery-operated radio and extra batteries*
Flashlight and extra batteries*
Cash or traveler's checks, change*
Non-electric can opener, utility knife*
Fire extinguisher: small canister ABC type
Tube tent
Pliers
Tape
Compass
Matches in a waterproof container
Aluminum foil
Plastic storage containers
Signal flares
Paper, pencil
Needles, thread
Medicine dropper
Shut-off wrench,
to turn off household gas and water
Whistle
Plastic sheeting
Map of the area (for locating shelters)




SANITATION

Toilet paper, towelettes*
Soap, liquid detergent*
Feminine supplies*
Personal hygiene items*
Plastic garbage bags, ties
(for personal sanitation uses)
Plastic bucket with tight lid
Disinfectant
Household chlorine bleach




CLOTHING BEDDING

*Include at least one complete change of clothing
and footwear per person.
Sturdy shoes or work boots*
Rain gear*
Blankets or sleeping bags*
Hat and gloves
Thermal underwear
Sunglasses




SPECIAL ITEMS

Remember family members with special requirements,
such as infants and elderly or disabled persons,



FOR BABY

Formula
Diapers
Bottles
Powdered milk
Medications




FOR ADULTS

Heart and high blood pressure medication
Insulin
Prescription drugs
Denture needs
Contact lenses and supplies
Extra eye glasses




ENTERTAINMENT

Games and books



IMPORTANT FAMILY DOCUMENTS

Keep these records in a waterproof, portable container:
Will, insurance policies, contracts deeds, stocks and bonds
Passports, social security cards, immunization records
Bank account numbers
Credit card account numbers and companies.

Inventory of valuable household goods,
important telephone numbers
Family records (birth, marriage,
death certificates)
Store your kit in a convenient place
known to all family members. Keep a
smaller version of the supplies kit
in the trunk of your car.

Keep items in airtight plastic bags.
Change your stored water supply every
six months so it stays fresh. Replace
your stored food every six months.
Re-think your kit and family needs at
least once a year. Replace batteries,
update clothes, etc.


Ask your physician or pharmacist about
storing prescription medications.



RED CROSS
http://www.redcross.org/



BACK TO TOP



SECTION 5



BASIC
FIRST
AID
KITS 1




BASIC FIRST AID KITS 1:


The American College of Emergency
Physicians suggests that these
items be in your Home First Aid Kit:

Acetaminophen, ibuprofen and aspirin
tablets (Aspirin should not be used
to relieve flu symptoms or be taken
by children.),
Cough Suppressant,
Antihistamine,
Decongestant tablets,
Oral medicine syringe (for children),
Bandages of assorted sizes,
Bandage closures; safety pins,
Triangular bandage,
Elastic wraps,
Gauze and adhesive tapes,
Sharp scissors with rounded tips,
Antiseptic wipes,
Antibiotic ointment,
Hydrogen peroxide,
Disposable, instant-activating cold packs,
Tweezers.




BACK TO TOP



SECTION 6



BASIC
FIRST
AID
KITS 2




BASIC FIRST AID KITS 2:

Include the following in
each of your first-aid kits:

first-aid manual,
sterile gauze,
adhesive tape,
adhesive bandages in several sizes,
elastic bandage,
antiseptic wipes,
soap,
antibiotic cream,
(triple-antibiotic ointment),
antiseptic solution,
(like hydrogen peroxide),
hydrocortisone cream (1%),
acetaminophen and ibuprofen,
extra prescription medications,
(if the family is going on vacation),
tweezers,
sharp scissors,
safety pins,
disposable instant cold packs,
calamine lotion,
alcohol wipes or ethyl alcohol,
thermometer,
plastic gloves (at least 2 pairs),
flashlight and extra batteries,
mouthpiece for administering CPR.
(can be obtained from your local Red Cross)
your list of emergency phone numbers
blanket (stored nearby).

After you've stocked your first-aid kits:

Read the entire first-aid manual so
you'll understand how to use the
contents of your kits.
(If your children are old enough to
understand, review the manuals with
them as well.)

Store first-aid kits in places that
are out of children's reach but easily
accessible for adults.

Check the kits regularly.
Replace missing items or medicines that
may have expired.




BACK TO TOP



SECTION 7



PERSONAL
FIRST
AID
KITS




Suggested Personal
First Aid Kit List:


1 - roll 1" cloth tape,
4 - 4" x 4", or 3" x 3" general gauze pads,
2 - non-adherent gauze pads,
1 - 8" x 7" combine (bulk) dressing,
8 - band-aid bandages,
2 - 3" or 4" stretch roller gauze,
3 - 3" or 4" occlusive dressings,
2 - triangular bandages,
1 - 4" ace wrap,
1 - Sam Splint or wire splint,
4pr - vinyl exam gloves,
1 - CPR pocket mask w/ 1 way valve or shield,
1 - Airways, nasal and/or airway,
1 - blister kit (personal preference),
5 - povodine iodine packets,
1 - trauma scissors,
1 - splinter tweezers,
1 - thermometer,
1 - med kit (personal preference),
1 - blanket pin,
2 - safety pins,
1 - 12 to 60cc syringe,
1 - 20-30' duct tape.




BACK TO TOP



SECTION 8



EMERGENCY
STATION
FIRST
AID
KITS




Contents:


Most store bought first aid kits,
especially the cheap ones, are
very poor in terms of quality,
quantity, and selection of items,
and are only suited for treating
very minor injuries.

A homemade kit, if properly prepared,
is generally better and sometimes
cheaper than most commercial kits.

A generic first aid kit is better
than nothing. However, the contents
of a first aid kit should be optimized
for local conditions.

For example, a kit for hikers in snake
country should have a snakebite kit. A
kit aboard a boat should have medications
for seasickness.


One list of items for a first
aid kit are as follows:



Dressings,
(Sterile, applied directly to wound)
Adhesive bandages are one of the most
commonly used items in a first aid kit,
Sterile eye pads,
Sterile gauze pads,
Sterile nonadherent pads,
Burn dressing,
(sterile pad soaked in a cooling gel),
Occlussive dressing,
(airtight dressing, can be used to treat
a 'sucking chest wound', in which air is
sucked into the chest cavity, collapsing
the lung(pneumothorax). For this use,
occlussive dressings should be taped on
3 sides only, to create a 'one-way valve'),
petroleum gauze,
(also used as non-adherent dressing)
Half of any gauze wrapper can be used,
since the inside is sterile and air-tight
Bandages,
(sterility is not necessary, used to secure
a dressing)

Gauze Roller bandages
absorbent,
breathable,
elastic,

Elastic bandages
used for sprains,
pressure bandages,

Adhesive,
elastic roller bandages
Very effective pressure
bandages or durable,
waterproof bandaging,

Triangular bandages,
used as slings,
tourniquets,
to tie splints,
and many other uses

Sometimes the dressings
and bandages are combined,
in which case it must be
sterile.

Adhesive bandages,
(band-aids, sticking plasters)
straight adhesive bandages,
Butterfly (knuckle)bandages,

Disposable gloves should be
provided in a first aid kit
Instruments,

Adhesive tape,
hypoallergenic,
"Trauma Shears",
for cutting clothing
and general use.

Tweezers,

Irrigation syringe,
for cleaning wounds,

rubber suction bulb,
for clearing the airway
of an unconscious patient.

Sawyer extractor if treating
snakebites is a concern.
This is the only snakebite kit
generally recognised as not
causing further damage and
possibly reducing the effects
of a snakebite.



Equipment:


A flashlight is a useful addition
to a first aid kit, especially one
placed in a vehicleSplint(s).

SAM Splint
Versatile splint made of malleable
aluminum covered with foam.

Air splints - Easy to apply, can
also help control bleeding, but
bulkier and more expensive.

Wire ladder splint,

Personal Protective Equipment(PPE).
Gloves, disposable non-latex.
CPR face shield or other breathing
barrier,
Eye cup or small plastic cup.
Flashlight,
Instant-acting chemical cold packs,
Space blanket,
(lightweight plastic foil blanket),

Sterile eye wash (commonly saline),
Sterile saline may also be used for
cleaning wounds where clean tap water
is not available.

Swabs, sterile non-woven,
Hand Sanitizer or antiseptic hand
wipes,
Thermometer,
Penlight,



Medication


Medication, (single use packets of
medications, ointments, and antiseptics
will prolong shelf life, decrease
contamination risk, reduce risk of leakage
(usually), and save space(for small
quantities).
If large amounts of a medication are needed,
a multi-use container can be used in addition,
but keep single-use packets as a backup. For
general household use(not in first aid kits),
single use packets can be wasteful and bad for
the environment,

Antiseptics/antimicrobial,
Povidone iodine wipes - very effective and
painless, but messy. Can also be used to
purify water.

Benzalkonium Chloride,
painless, effective, often includes anesthetic
(Bactine brand).

Alcohol pads,
should not be used on open cuts or wounds,
since they cause tissue damage and delay
healing. They can be used to prep unbroken
skin for injections etc. or to disenfect
equipment such as thermometers. While not
a medical use, alcohol pads are also useful
as a solvent to remove ink, adhesives, etc.

Antibiotic ointment,
single, double, or triple antibiotic ointment
in petroleum jelly base(i.e. Neosporin,
Polysporin). Since it has a petroleum jelly
base, it can be used for things such as chapped
lips.

Antiseptic/anesthetic ointment or spray,
Anti-itch ointment,
(especially for outdoor kits).
hydrocortizone cream,
antihistamine cream, such as benadryl,
calamine lotion,
Painkillers / fever reducers,
(Since moderate fevers are beneficial,
avoid unless necessary)
Acetaminophen(brand name Tylenol),

Ibuprofin(such as Advil),
anti-inflammatory, often more effective
that acetaminophen,
Naproxen(such as Aleve)
similar to ibuprofin, but stronger and
longer lasting.

Aspirin,
one 300mg Aspirin tablet may be given to
a patient suffering a heart attack, to be
chewed slowly.

Antihistamenes,
can treat allergies and allergic reactions,
including life-threatening anaphylactic shock.
Although OTC(over-the-counter) medications are
far less effective at treating anaphylaxis than
epinephrine or prescription drugs, they are much
better than nothing and can be potentially life
saving, and therefore may be the most valuable
medication in a first aid kit.

diphenhydramine,
(brand name Benadryl),

Aloe vera gel,
used for a wide variety of skin problems,
including burns, sunburns, itching, and
dry skin.

Burn gel,
a water based gel that acts as a cooling
agent and often inludes a mild anasthetic
such as lidocaine, and sometimes and an
antiseptic such as tea tree oil.

Epinephrine auto,
injector(brand name Epipen),
Often included in kits for wilderness use
and in places like summer camps, to treat
anaphylactic shock. Requires a prescription
and can be used with minimal training.

Poison treatments,
Activated charcoal,
to be used when directed by poison control.
Syrup of ipecac - to be used when directed
by poison control.

QuikClot is a hemostatic agent sometimes
included in first aid kits, especially
military kits, to control severe bleeding.
It is recent product not yet widely marketed
to civilians, although in 2002 Z-Medica(maker
of QuikClot) received FDA clearance to do so.




BACK TO TOP



SECTION 9



EMERGENCY
DISASTER
LINKS




72 Hours
http://www.72hours.org/

The American National Red Cross
http://www.redcross.org/

American Veterinary Medical Association
http://www.avma.org/

Basic Life Support and Emergency CPR
http://www.acls.net/2013/04/03/basic-life-support-and-emergency-cpr/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC
http://www.cdc.gov/

The Disaster Center
http://www.disastercenter.com/

Disaster Preparation Guide
http://ammo.com/articles/why-prepare-for-a-disaster

E Medicine Health.com
http://www.emedicinehealth.com/

EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS SERVIVES
http://www.emprep.com/

Federal Emergency Management Agency FEMA
http://www.fema.gov/

First Aid Links
http://www.firstaidlinks.com/

Friends of Animals
http://www.friendsofanimals.org/



BACK TO TOP




Guides to Disaster Recovery
http://www.homeadvisor.com/cost/disaster-recovery/

Home Emergency & Disaster Safety
http://www.improvenet.com/a/home-emergency-disaster-safety

Hurricane Store
http://www.hurricanestore.com/

Lewisham Council
http://www.lewisham.gov.uk/

Natural Disasters & Severe Weather
http://emergency.cdc.gov/disasters/

National Safety Council | Emergency Preparedness Plan & Checklist
http://www.nsc.org/safety_home/EmergencyPreparedness/Pages/EmergencyPreparedness.aspx

Pet Disaster Preparedness - ASPCA
http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/disaster-preparedness

Prepare.org
http://www.prepare.org/

Prepare, Plan & Stay Informed for Emergencies
http://www.ready.gov/make-a-plan

Ready.gov
http://www.ready.gov/

SOS INFO
http://www.sosinfo.net/

Survival Suppliers
http://www.survivalsuppliers.com/



SURVIVAL WAREHOUSE
http://www.survival-warehouse.com/




BACK TO TOP



HEALTH INDEX


HEALTH SCIENCE


HEALTH SUB-INDEX


HOME


MEDICAL FEEDS


MILITARY SEXUAL TRAUMA PROGRAM


PHARMACY DRUGS


SICKLE CELL


WOMEN HEALTH


E-MAIL




BACK TO TOP