COMPOSTING



REDUCE
REUSE
RECYCLE
RETHINK




With a plan, two people can grow a year's supply of
vegetables and fruits on a lot 20-by-50 feet. Compost
is the key to the organic method. organic gardeners
use the materials at hand. Nature is very efficient
at recycling of nutrients. PLAN ahead and SAVE.




WHY
COMPOST?




Recycling the organic waste of a household into compost
allows us to return badly needed organic matter to the soil.
In this way, we participate in nature's cycle, and cut down
on garbage going into our burgeoning landfills.






COMPOSTING TIPS

INDORE COMPOST

CARBON/NITROGEN RATIOS

COMPOST TEA

COMPOST LINKS

EARTHWORMS

EARTHWORMS LINKS

TIME FACTORS

UNDESIRABLES

NITROGEN SOURCES

OTHER NITROGEN SOURCES

CARBON SOURCES

AREA FOR PILES

SOIL SCIENCE

SOIL CONTAMINATION

INORGANIC FERTILIZERS

SOIL SCIENCE LINKS

DECOMPOSERS/DETRIOVORES

DECOMPOSERS/DETRIOVORES LINKS

MUSHROOMS

MUSHROOM LINKS

BIODYNAMIC AGRICULTURE

FOUR KEY ELEMENTS

PREPARATIONS

FERTILIZERS

COMPOST PREPARATIONS

HOMEOPATHIC PREPARATIONS

INTEGRATED PRODUCTION

RECONCILIATION ECOLOGY

MOON PHASES



SECTION 1




COMPOSTING
TIPS




SIZE OF COMPOST PILE:

A compost pile should be at least three to four
feet high, and just as wide for it to adequately
heat up in the center.


ACTIVATOR/STARTER MATERIALS:

Dehydrated bacteria in a package is available. But
bacteria existing on the organic material and in the
soil are more than enough to start the composting
process. Use organic tea for a better start.


ELEMENTS:

Each material has it own level of carbon and nitrogen.
These carbohydrates and protein feed your microbes,
Green materials provides your pile with nitrogen.


FACTS:

Compost will protect your plants from soil-borne
diseases and parasites. Compost helps in water-holding
capacity, erosion control, soil life, plant health and
the environment on the whole.



AQUATIC PLANTS:

Most fresh water aquatic plants make good organic
material, for your compost pile.


TIP:

If you use salt water plant, you should dry
them first. Seaweed makes for a good organic
material.


CHECK YOUR LOCAL EXTENSION OFFICE

FOR FACTS ON AQUATIC PLANTS IN YOUR

AREA, AND THEIR USE IN COMPOSTING.



BACK TO TOP



SECTION 2




INDORE
COMPOST




1.Vary the materials for a balanced food supply
for your microoganisms.



2.Mix all materials thoroughly, instead
of making layers.



3.Use small pieces of stems and leaves to
provide less work for microorganisms.


TIP:

CHIPPER/SHREDDERS ARE GOOD FOR THIS JOB.


4.Turn frequently for aeration.

TIP:

Turn on second day, the fourth day,
the seventh day, and then the tenth
day for compost in two weeks.

Turned once or twice, and you can have
a fully digested compost in six months.
With no turning a year.



5.Maintain ample moisture

TIP:

Too much rain or water will lower temperature,
remove oxygen,and nutrients. A cover will help.


TIP:

A good starter is compost tea.




BACK TO TOP




SECTION 3



CARBON/NITROGEN
RATIOS OF VARIOUS
ORGANIC MATERIALS




TIP:

25 TO 30 TO 1 IS BEST CARBON-NITROGEN RATIO.

FOOD WASTES:

Table scraps.

TIP:

NO DAIRY OR MEAT OR BONES.
15-1


SEWAGE SLUDGE:ACTIVATED:

6-1

SEWAGE SLUDGE:DIGESTED:

16-1

WOOD:

TIP:

NONTREATED
700-1

SAWDUST:

500-1

PAPER:

170-1

GRASS CLIPPINGS:

19-1

LEAVES:

A range of 80-1
to 40-1

FRUIT WASTES:

35-1

ROTTED MANURE:

20-1

SUGAR CANE RESIDUES:

50-1

CORNSTALKS:

60-1

STRAW:

80-1

ALFALFA HAY:

12-1

HUMUS:

Organic materials, produced by decomposing.
10-1

ALFALFA:

13-1

GREEN SWEETCLOVER:

16-1

MATURE SWEETCLOVER:

23-1

LEGUME-GRASS HAY:

25-1

OAT STRAW:

80-1



BACK TO TOP




SECTION 4



COMPOST
TEA





Compost tea is more or less a
liquid version of compost. You
take your solid compost, and soak
it in water and let the mixture
sit around for a few hours or a
few days. Then you pour the liquid
through a screen, or through cheesecloth
or something similar to strain out the
solid material into a bucket. What you
have then is compost tea. Compost tea
is great, because it is a very mild,
organic liquid fertilizer that provides
beneficial live organisms that improve
the soil where you use it. It doesn't burn
plants like store bought fertilizers can.




BACK TO TOP




SECTION 4A



COMPOSTING
LINKS:




The Best Herbs for Composting
https://www.regenerative.com/magazine/best-herbs-composting?cctidx=best-herbs-composting

COMPOST-BIN
http://www.compost-bin.com

THE COMPOSTING ASSOCIATION
http://www.compost.org.uk

COMPOSTERS
http://www.composters.com

COMPOST GUIDE
http://www.compostguide.com

COMPOSTING COUNCIL OF CANADA
http://www.compost.org

FUNKY ORGANIC
http://www.funkyorganic.com

HOW TO COMPOST
http://www.howtocompost.org

INGENTA CONNECT
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/

MASTER COMPOSTER
http://www.mastercomposter.com

OLD GROWTH
http://www.oldgrowth.org

REGION 18
http://www.region18.com/

SOIL AND HEALTH LIBRARY
http://www.soilandhealth.org/

VERMICULTURE SYSTEMS
http://www.composters.com



BACK TO TOP



SECTION 5


EARTHWORMS





WHY USE EARTHWORMS

GARDENING:


1. Earthworms convert soil and other
particles into high quality humus.


2. Earthworms feed plant roots with
their casts.


3. Earthworms loosen soil into perfect
channels for air to reach plant roots
and allow carbon dioxide to escape.




CARE:




Find A Suitable Place:

The worms and bedding should be contained in a
small box or bin, approximately one foot high,
2 feet deep and 3 feet wide.


Temperatures of about 60 to 80 degrees F. are ideal,
but the worms will tolerate temperatures from
40 to 90 degrees F.


Prepare The Bedding:

Commonly available sources of suitable Commonly
available sources of suitable bedding for
your worm bin are shredded newspaper, cardboard,
or computer printout paper. Knowing someone in an
office with a paper shredder is helpful, but you
can easily shred your own paper. With newspaper,
use only the regular black and white sections
-not the color sections - as dyes maybe toxic
to worms. Tear the paper along the center fold,
then keep tearing in parallel strips of about
1 inch in width. You'll need about 10 pounds
for an average sized bin.

Put the shredded newspaper in the bin. Add a gallon
of garden soil-the worms need the grit to aid their
digestion-and 4 gallons of water to provide sufficient
moisture. The bedding material should be moist but
not soggy. Prepare moistened bedding at least 2 days
prior to adding worms, as it may heat initially and
harm the worms.




BACK TO TOP



SECTION 5



EARTHWORMS
LINKS




MORARKA FOUNDATION
http://www.morakango.com

VERICO
http://www.vermiculture.net

VERMICULTURE
http://www.vermiculture.com

VERMICULTURE MANUAL
http://www.manualdelombricultura.com/en/

WORMS
http://www.worms.com

WORMBINS
http://www.wormbins.com

WORM DIGEST
http://www.wormdigest.org

WORMPOOP
http://www.wormpoop.com

YELM WORM FARM
http://www.yelmworms.com



BACK TO TOP



SECTION 6



TIME
FACTORS




NOTE:
Weather in your area plays a part in time factors.

NO TURNING
Up to a year or more.

WEEKLY TURNING
Several months.

FREQUENT TURNING
(EVERY 3 DAYS)
Several weeks.

TIP:
Turning lets air mix with material. Ventilation
provides organisms with air, decomposition occurs
in the presence of a rich source of air is
called"AEROBIC".




BACK TO TOP



SECTION 7



UNDESIRABLES




BONES

BUTTER

CHARCOAL COAL

CHEESE

CHICKEN

DESEASED PLANTS

DOG/CAT FEECES

FISH

LARD

LIME

MAGAZINES,INKS,DYES

MAYONNAISE

MEAT OF ANY KIND

MILK

OILS

PEANUT BUTTER

PRESSURE TREATED WOOD

SOUR CREAM

VACUUM BAGS AND DUST




BACK TO TOP



SECTION 8



NITROGEN
SOURCES
FOOD SCRAPS
RICH IN
NITROGEN




APPLES

ARTICHOLES

ASPARAGUS

BANANAS FRUIT AND PEEL

BEANS

BEETS

BLACKBERRIES

BREAD

BROCCOLI

BRUSSELS SPROUTS

BUCKWHEAT HULLS

CABBAGE

CARROTS

CELERY

CUCUMBERS

GRAPES

PEARS

LETTUCE

MELONS

OATS AND OATMEAL

ONIONS

PINEAPPLES

POTATOES

RICE

SQUASH

TEA LEAVES

TOMATOES

TURNIPS

ZUCCHINI




BACK TO TOP



SECTION 9



OTHER
NITROGEN
SOURECES




ALFALFA

BLOOD MEAL

BONE MEAL

CLOVER

COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS

COMPOST, FINISHED

FEATHERS

GARDEN WASTE

GRASS CLIPPINGS

HAIR

HAY

HOPS(USED)

HUMUS OR SAND

MANURE

SEAWEED

SOD

VEGETABLE PEELS




BACK TO TOP



SECTION 10



CARBON
SOURCES




BARK

CARDBOARD

COFFE GROUNDS

CORN COBS, STALKS

DRIED FLOWERS

DRYER LINT

DUST

EGG SHELL

FELT

LEAVES

MUSHROOM COMPOST

NEWAPAPER

PAPER

PEANUT SHELLS

PEAT MOSS

PINE CHIPS

PINE NEEDLES

PLANT PRUNINGS

ROPE

SAWDUST FROM NON-TREATED WOOD

STRAW

STRING

TEA BAGS

WOODCHIPS

WOOL OR COTTON SCRAPS




BACK TO TOP



SECTION 11



AREAS
FOR
PILES




NEVER place on slope without enclosure.

NEVER on a concrete foundatio or non-porous
surface, this will cut down on temperature of
your pile.

NEVER place pile next to structures such as
houses or sheds, heat and moisture from pile
will effect wood and metal.

Make sure bin or pile is at least 3 feet away
from trees or shrubs, nitrogen run of can
effect them.

Always keep bin or pile moisture content
between 40 and 60 percent. It should
feel wet but not dry or poedery.


TIP:
A good starter is compost tea.



BACK TO TOP



SECTION 12



SOIL
SCIENCE




Soil science deals with soil as a natural
resource on the surface of the earth
including soil formation, classification
and mapping; physical, chemical, biological,
and fertility properties of soils as a whole,
and these properties in relation to the use
and management of soils.

Sometimes terms which refer to branches of soil
science, such as pedology and edaphology, are
used as if synonymous with soil science. The
diversity of names associated with this
discipline is related to the various
associations concerned. Indeed, engineers,
agronomists, chemists, geologists, geographers,
biologists, microbiologists, sylviculturists,
sanitarians, archaeologists, and specialists
in regional planning, all contribute to further
knowledge of soils and the advancement of the
soil sciences.

Because an understanding of soil science is
important to the correct practice of a wide
variety ofdisciplines, it is not unusual to
find soils specialists within related
disciplines. Soils specialists within related
disciplines sometimes choose to refer to
themselves as soils scientists,leading to some
confusion as to qualifications.


TIP:

Good water drainage improves microbial habitats
by increasing oxygen availability.




BACK TO TOP



SECTION 12A



SOIL
CONTAMINATION




Soil contamination is the presence of
man-made chemicals or other alteration
to the natural soil environment.


This type of contamination
typically arises from:

rupture of underground
storage tanks,

application of pesticides
and herbicides,

percolation of contaminated
surface water to subsurface
strata,

leaching of wastes
from landfills,

direct discharge of
industrial wastes
to the soil.

The most common chemicals
involved are:

petroleum hydrocarbons,

solvents,

pesticides,

lead and other
heavy metals.


The occurrence of this phenomenon
is correlated with the degree of
industrialization and intensity
of chemical usage.




BACK TO TOP



SECTION 12B



INORGANIC
FERTILIZERS




Fertilizers provide some of the nutrients needed
by organisms and will favor those species that
can best use these forms of nutrients. The pH
and salt effect of some fertilizers (such as
ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, and
urea formaldehyde) reduces populations of
fungi, nematodes, and probably protozoa,
at least temporarily. It is not clear how
long this effect lasts in different situations.
situations.

Because fertilizer use increases plant growth,
and therefore organic inputs into the soil,
biological activity may be higher in the
fertilized soil than in soil with low levels
of plant nutrients.



DECOMPOSITION:
Turning organic compounds into other organic compounds.


MINERALIZATION:
Turning organic matter into inorganic compounds that
may be used by plants.



IMMOBILIZATION:
Turning inorganic compounds into organic compounds.
Farmers depend on bacteria for one more transformation.



MINERAL TRANSFORMATION:
Turning inorganic matter into other inorganic compounds.



BACK TO TOP



SECTION 12C



SOIL
SCIENCE
LINKS




BASEMENT LIGHTING
http://www.basementlighting.com/

THE GARDEN HELPER
http://www.thegardenhelper.com/

GROW BIOINTENSIVE
http://www.growbiointensive.org/

GROWELL
http://www.growell.co.uk/

GROW STUFF PLUS
http://www.growstuffplus.com/

THE NATURAL FOOD GARDENER
http://www.naturalhub.com/

SOIL ASSOCIATION
http://www.soilassociation.org/

SOIL MOIST
http://www.soilmoist.com/

SOIL SECRETS
http://www.soilsecrets.com/



BACK TO TOP



SECTION 13



DECOMPOSERS




Decomposer are the organisms that
break down the final remains of
living things.
Predominantly bacteria and fungi,
they are important in freeing the
last of the minerals and nutrients
from organics and recycling them
back into the food web.

Decomposers, which include bugs,
mushrooms, worms and bacteria, are
nature's recyclers.
When a tree dies, decomposers chow
down on the dead bark and leaves and
turn that old tree into soil, which
allows new plants to grow.
If trees are cut down and hauled away
to make paper, decomposers are left
exposed in the hot sun with very little
to eat and their population often dies
out as a result.




BACK TO TOP



SECTION 13A



DECOMPOSERS
LINKS




BioEd Online
http://www.bioedonline.org/

CO2 Science
http://www.co2science.org/

MadSciNet
http://www.madsci.org/

NSERC
http://www.nserc.ca/index.htm/

RecycleWorks
http://www.recycleworks.org/

Teachers' Domain
http://www.teachersdomain.org/



BACK TO TOP



SECTION 14



MUSHROOMS




TIP:
In bioremediation mushrooms can be used
to detoxofy contaminated environment. The
mushrooms that are grown in polluted
environments can absorb toxins directly
into their tissues. As a result, mushrooms
grown in these environments should not be
eaten.

Not only are mushroom a protein-rich food
source for human, but the by-products unlock
nutrients for other members of the ecological
community. Many species can be incorporated
into the permaculture model. A strategy that
uses mushrooms to help repair the environment,
due to natural disasters such as hurricanes,
tornadoes and floods. Mushrooms are a rich
source for amino acids(proteins) minerals and
vitamins.




BACK TO TOP



SECTION 14A



MUSHROOMS
LINKS:



BRITISH MYCOLOGICAL SOCIETY
http://www.britmycolsoc.org.uk/

DOCTOR FUNGUS
http://www.doctorfungus.org/

FUNGI.CA
http://www.fungi.ca/

FUNGI PERFECTI
http://www.fungi.com/

GOURMET MUSHROOM
http://www.gmushrooms.com/

GROW MAGIC MUSHROOMS
http://www.growmagicmushrooms.co.uk/

THE HIDDEN FOREST
http://www.hiddenforest.co.nz/

MUSHROOM ADVENTURES
http://www.mushroomadventures.com/



BACK TO TOP




THE MUSHROOM-DIRECTORY
http://www.mushroom-directory.com/

THE MUSHROOM GROWERS NEWSLETTER
http://www.mushroomcompany.com/

MYCOINFO
http://www.mycoinfo.com/

MYCOLOG.COM
http://www.mycolog.com/

MYCOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA
http://msafungi.org/

MYCOWEST
http://www.mycowest.org/

MYKOWEB
http://www.mykoweb.com/

MYXOWEB
http://www.myxoweb.com/

NORTH AMERICAN MYCOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION
http://www.namyco.org/

THE SHROOMERY
http://www.shroomery.org/



BACK TO TOP



SECTION 15



BIODYNAMIC
AGRICULTURE
BIODYNAMICS




Compost of herbs and vegetative material, yarrow,
chamomile, valerian, dandelion and oak bark. These
are mixed with horn silica, from female cow horns
and high quality cow manure. They are buried in the
ground on the fall equinox and removed on the spring
equinox. This mix is then mixed as you do compost tea.




BIODYNAMIC
AGRICULTURE
BIODYNAMIC
COMPRISES




Biodynamic agriculture, or biodynamics
comprises an ecological and sustainable
system of agricultural production,
particularly of food for humans that
claims to respect all creation.
It is based on the teachings of Rudolf
Steiner, particularly eight lectures
given by him in Schloss Koberwitz in
Silesia, Germany in 1924 (nowadays
close to Wroclaw, Poland), shortly
before his death.

At the time Steiner believed that the
introduction of chemical farming was
a major problem. He found that seeds
had dramatically less vitality and
that land that previously grew the
same crops year after year now had to
rotate crops in order to avoid problems.

Plants which formerly gathered their own
nutrients and minerals from the earth now
had become dependent on the dead chemical
fertilizers for their minerals and as humans
ate these weak plants they also lost their
will.

The term "biologically dynamic" or "biodynamic"
was however not invented by Steiner, but by his
adherents.
It includes many of the ideas of organic farming
(but predates the term) and has as a core focus
mystical anthroposophical ideas of the soil and
the life on and in it as a living, the sentient
system.




WHAT IS BIODYNAMIC
AGRICULTURE?


Biodynamic agriculture was put forth by Rudolf
Steiner in 1924 and is one of the oldest forms of
organic agriculture used today. Biodynamic farming
is a system of agriculture in which the farm is
designed to be a self-contained organism.

Combining natural farming practices with biodynamic
preparations and the farm’s own resources create a
modern and ecologically sound system tailored to the
specific conditions of its locale. This approach is
excellent for utilizing and enhancing the unique
capacities of each site.




BACK TO TOP



SECTION 15A



FOUR
KEY
ELEMENTS




Biodynamic agriculture rests upon an ecological
foundation of four key elements:


1.Biodiversity, which is achieved through companion
planting, cover cropping, crop rotation and border
planting such as hedges.


2.Soil health, which includes proper levels of organic
matter, good humus content and soil microbial
activity (bacteria, fungi, yeasts, protozoa,
insects, earth worms, etc).


3.Self-sustainability: Producing different crops
generates fodder to feed grazing animals (cows,
sheep, goats, horses). Self-sustainability is
reached by recycling animal manure through
compost-making,which is then used as a soil
amendment to perpetuate soil health.


4.Pest and Disease Prevention: Healthy plants
grown on healthy soil are better fit to naturally
resist pest and disease attacks. Thus, this system
produces the optimal foundation for pest and disease
prevention.




BACK TO TOP



SECTION 15B



THE
PREPARATIONS




FIELD
PREPARATIONS



FIELD PREPARATIONS
FOR STIMULATING
HUMUS FORMATION:


Preparation 500:
(horn-manure)


A humus mixture prepared by stuffing
cow manure into the horn of a cow,
bury this into the ground:
(40-60 cm below the surface)
in the autumn and let it decompose
during a winter.


Preparation 501:

Crushed powdered quartz that can be
mixed with 500 but usually prepared
on it own (mixture of 1 tablespoon
of quartz powder to 250 litres of
water).
The mixture is sprayed under very low
pressure over the crop during the wet
season to prevent fungal diseases.
It should be sprayed on an overcast
day to prevent burning of the leaves.

Both 500 and 501 is used on fields by
stirring the contents of a horn in 40-60
litres of water for an hour and whirl it
in different directions every second minute.
About 4 horns are used for each hectare of
soil.



SILICA
Silicon dioxide.
A hard white or colorless substance.


SILICON
Symbol:Si.
Element found only combined with other
elements, mostly with oxygen in silica.
Silicon has the properties of both a
metal and a nonmetal. Next to oxygen,
it is the most abundant element in the
earth's crust


Compost:
Compost making is achieved using various materials.
However, it is crucial to have the proper mixture of
carbon- and nitrogen-containing elements. Furthermore,
ideal moisture and oxygen levels are vital for good
composting. In biodynamic farming, several preparations
made from fermented plants are incorporated in the compost.
These preparations are derived from yarrow, chamomile,
stinging nettle, oak bark, dandelion and valerian. In
combination, these preparations help control the
compost-making process by favorably influencing the
formation of stabilized humus.


APPLICATION OF THE PREPARATIONS
Application of the preparations will vary according to
local conditions, but the timing is crucial. In adherence
to biodynamic principles, compost preparations are applied
in the fall, 500 is applied both during the fall and winter,
and 501 is applied during spring and early summer. It is
important to apply 500 at the end of the day, while 501 is
applied at daybreak.


SOLAR AND LUNAR RHYTHMS
To further stimulate the forces of nature, biodynamic
farming is implemented in conjunction with solar and
lunar rhythms. For example, the making of preparations
500 and 501 is based on the solar rhythm (equinoxes).


In addition, it is possible to strengthen the influences,
those rhythms have upon plants by farming in accordance
with the biodynamic calendar. The “Stella Natura” calendar
is published yearly by the Bio-Dynamic Farming and Gardening
Association. For each day, it indicates which plant part is
stimulated as the moon travels across the sky. As it passes
in front of certain constellations, the moon and other
celestial bodies stimulate forces which exert influence
on earth.




BACK TO TOP



SECTION 15C



FERTILIZERS




Steiner prescribed eight different
preparations for fertilizers which
were allowed for use in biodynamic
agriculture, and gave great details
of how these were to be prepared.


The substances
are numbered:
500 through 507,


where as the first two are used for
preparing fields where as the latter
six are used for making compost.




BACK TO TOP



SECTION 15D



COMPOST
PREPARATIONS




Compost preparations,
used for preparing compost:


Preparation 500:
Also known as horn manure,


500 enhances soil health.
This preparation is made by
packing a female cow horn with
with cow manure and burying it
for 6 months,
(from fall to spring equinox).


Preparation 501:
Also known as horn silica,


501 boosts plant photosynthesis.
This preparation is made by
packing a female cow horn with
ground silica and burying it for
6 months,
(from spring to fall equinox).



Preparation 502
Yarrow blossoms
(Achillea millefolium)


are stuffed into urinary bladders
from Cervus elaphus, Red Deers,
placed in the sun during summer,
buried in earth during winter
and retrieved in the spring.


Preparation 503
Chamomile blossoms
(Chamomilla officinalis)


are stuffed into small intestines
from cattle buried in humus-rich
earth in the autumn and retrieved
in the spring.


Preparation 504:
Stinging nettle
(Urtica dioca,
the whole plant
in full bloom)


is stuffed together under ground
surrounded on all sides by peat
for a year.


Preparation 505:
Oak bark
(Quercus robur)


is chopped in small pieces, placed
inside the skull of some domesticated
animal, surrounded by peat and buried
in earth in a place where lots of rain
water runs by.


Preparation 506:
Dandelion flowers
(Taraxacum officinale)


is stuffed into peritoneum from some
cattle is buried in earth during winter
and retrieved in the spring.


Preparation 507:
Valerian flowers
(Valeriana officinalis)


is extracted into water.

One to three grams
(a teaspoon)


of each preparation is added to a
dung heap by digging 50 cm deep
holes with a distance of 2 meters
from each other, except for the 507
preparation, which is stirred into
5 litres of water and sprayed over
the entire compost surface.

All preparations are thus used in
homeopathic quantities, and the only
intent is to strengthen the life
forces of the farm.




BACK TO TOP



SECTION 15E



HOMEOPATHIC
PREPARATION




The standard preparations 500-507
are added at a rate of 1 part
preparation to 9 parts distilled
water for an X (or D) potency or
1 part preparation to 99 parts
distilled water for a C potency.

They are successed according to
standard homeopathic practices.
According to practitioners, this
has the effect of transferring
the energetic patterns from the
preparations into the distilled
water.

The first step is called the mother
tincture and 1 part of the mother
tincture is added to 9 or 99 parts
distilled water and successed to
create a 1X or 1C dilution.
Repeat again and it becomes a 2X or
2C dilution. The process is repeated
as many times as necessary in order
to create an appropriate dilution
(ie. 30C).
The correct dilution is up to the
experience and intuition of the farmer
just as it is up to the homeopathic
doctor to give his patients the right
dilution of medicine to treat them.




BACK TO TOP



SECTION 15F



INTEGRATED
PRODUCTION
IP




The International Organization for
Biological Control has provided the
leadership for developing the
Integrated Production philosophy,
general guidelines, and crop specific
technical guidelines.

The IOBC defines Integrated Production
(IP) as a "farming system that produces
high quality food and other products by
using natural resources and regulating
mechanisms to replace polluting inputs
and to secure sustainable farming.

Emphasis is placed on a holistic systems
approach involving the entire farm as the
basic unit, on the central role of the
agro-ecosystems, on balanced nutrient
cycles, and on the welfare of all species
in animal husbandry.

The preservation and improvement of soil
fertility and of a diversified environment
are essential components. Biological,
technical and chemical methods are balanced
carefully taking into account the protection
of the environment, profitability and social
requirements.




BACK TO TOP



SECTION 15G



RECONCILIATION
ECOLOGY




Reconciliation ecology is the science
of accommodating wild species within
human-modified or -occupied landscapes.
It holds that protecting wilderness,
though necessary, is not enough to
preserve biodiversity given the large
area required for a diverse range of
species to survive in the long term.

The concept has been popularized by
the ecologist Michael Rosenzweig in
his book Win-Win Ecology.




BACK TO TOP



SECTION 15H



MOON
PHASES




New Moon:
The Moon's unilluminated side is
facing the Earth. The Moon is not
visible,
(except during a solar eclipse).



Waxing Crescent:
The Moon appears to be partly but
less than one-half illuminated by
direct sunlight. The fraction of
the Moon's disk that is illuminated
is increasing.



First Quarter:
One-half of the Moon appears to be
illuminated by direct sunlight. The
fraction of the Moon's disk that is
illuminated is increasing.



Waxing Gibbous:
The Moon appears to be more than
one-half but not fully illuminated
by direct sunlight. The fraction
of the Moon's disk that is illuminated
is increasing.



Full Moon:
The Moon's illuminated side is facing
the Earth. The Moon appears to be
completely illuminated by direct
sunlight.



Waning Gibbous:
The Moon appears to be more than
one-half but not fully illuminated
by direct sunlight. The fraction of
the Moon's disk that is illuminated
is decreasing.



Last Quarter:
One-half of the Moon appears to be
illuminated by direct sunlight. The
fraction of the Moon's disk that is
illuminated is decreasing.



Waning Crescent:
The Moon appears to be partly but less
than one-half illuminated by direct
sunlight. The fraction of the Moon's
disk that is illuminated is decreasing.




Names of
Full Moons


January:
Wolf.

February:
Snow,
Quickening,
Storm.


March:
Worm,
Sap,
Chaste.


April:
Seed,
Pink,
Grass,
Sprouting,
Wind.


May:
Flower,
Corn Planting,
Hare.


June:
Strong,
Rose,
Sun,
Strawberry.


July:
Mead,
Thunder,
Buck.


August:
Sturgeon,
Wort,
Corn.


September:
Barley,
Harvest.


October:
Hunter's,
Blood.


November:
Mourning,
Beaver.


December:
Cold,
Oak,
Long Night's.




MOON
PHASES
links




Garden and Plant by
the Moon Calendar

http://www.pkenterprisespublishing.com/moon/index.html


Te Ara Encyclopedia
of New Zealand

http://www.teara.govt.nz/en



BACK TO TOP



CODEX


GREEN INDEX


GREEN SUB-INDEX


HOME


E-MAIL