CLEAN
WATER




WATER

WATER PURIFICATION

DRINKING WATER

WATER QUALITY

NATIRAL WATER PURIFICATION

EMERGENCY DISINFECTION

SOLAR STILLS

SOLAR WATER DISINFECTION

SOLAR WATER LINKS

CLEAN WATER LINKS



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SECTION 1



WATER




Water is a common chemical substance,
that is essential to all known forms
of life. In typical usage water refers
only to its liquid form or state, but
the substance also has the solid state,
ice, and gaseous state, water vapor.

About 1,460 teratonnes (Tt) of water
cover 71% of Earth's surface, with 1.6%
of water below ground in aquifers and
0.001% in the air as vapor, clouds,
and precipitation.

Saltwater oceans hold 97% of surface water,
glaciers and polar ice caps 2.4%; and other
land surface water such as rivers and lakes
0.025%.

Water in these forms moves perpetually through
the water cycle of evaporation and transpiration,
precipitation, and runoff usually reaching the
sea. Winds carry water vapor over land at the
same rate as runoff into the sea, about 36 Tt
per year.



WATER
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water



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SECTION 2



WATER
PURIFICATION




Water purification is the process of
removing contaminants from a raw water
source, the goal is to produce water
for a specific purpose with a treatment
profile designed to limit the inclusion
of specific materials; most water is
purified for human consumption drinking
water.

Water purification may also be designed
for a variety of other purposes and water
purified to meet the requirements of
medical, pharmacology, chemical and
industrial applications.



Methods include but
are not limited to:

ultra violet light;

filtration;

softened water;

reverse osmosis,

ultrafiltration;

molecular stripping;

deionization ;

carbon treatment.



Water Purification
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_purification



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SECTION 3



DRINKING
WATER




Drinking water is water that is
intended to be ingested by humans.
Water of sufficient quality to
serve as drinking water is termed
potable water whether it is used
as such or not.

Although many fresh water sources
are utilised by humans, some contain
disease vectors or pathogens and
cause long-term health problems if
they do not meet certain water
quality guidelines.

Water that is not harmful for human
beings is sometimes called safe water,
water which is not contaminated to the
extent of being unhealthy.

The available supply of drinking water
is an important criterion of carrying
capacity, the population level that can
be supported by planet Earth.



Drinking Water
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drinking_water



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SECTION 4



WATER
QUALITY




Water quality is the physical, chemical
and biological characteristics of water.

The primary bases for such characterization
are parameters which relate to drinking
water, safety of human contact and for health
of ecosystems.

The vast majority of surface water on the
planet is neither potable nor toxic. This
remains true even if sea water in the oceans
(which is too salty to drink) isn't counted.

Another general perception of water quality
is that of a simple property that tells whether
water is water pollution or not. In fact,
water quality is a very complex subject, in part
because water is a complex medium intrinsically
tied to the ecology of the Earth.


Industrial pollution
is a main cause of
water pollution.



Water Quality
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_quality



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SECTION 5



NATURAL
WATER
PURIFICATION




How
Natural Water
Purification
Works!



Water purification depends on:

filtration,

absorption by soil
particles,

living organisms in
the water and soil.

Human activities that:

compact soil,

contaminate the water,

alter the composition
of organisms,

degrade the purification
process,

accelerate movement of
unfiltered water through
the system and into our
water supplies.



Wetlands:

Wetlands can remove 20 to 60% of
metals in the water, trap and
retain 80 to 90% of sediment from
runoff and eliminate 70 to 90% of
entering nitrogen.

Many types of plants are specially
adapted to the different kinds of
wetlands, and a large percentage
of the nation's imperiled plants
and animals depend on wetlands for
at least part of their life cycle.



Riparian Forests:

Riparian (streamside) forests act
as "living filters" that intercept
and absorb sediments, and store and
transform excess nutrients and
pollutants carried in runoff from
adjacent lands.

They reduce the nitrogen concentration
in water runoff and floodwater by up
to 90%, and can reduce phosphorous by
as much as 50%.



Microorganisms:

Microorganisms are the natural chemical
engineers of the ecosystem. Bacteria and
other organisms utilize or break down
nutrients, metals, and other chemical
contaminants in the water.



Constructed Wetlands:

Constructed wetlands mimic some of the
filtration power of natural systems.

They can be cost efficient for small
communities but can not replace natural
wetlands, and may not provide the many
other wetland services (such as flood
control and fish and wildlife habitat).



Ecological Society of America
http://www.esa.org/



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SECTION 6



EMERGENCY
DISINFECTION
OF
DRINKING
WATER




Emergency Disinfection
of Drinking Water!



USE ONLY WATER
THAT HAS BEEN
PROPERLY
DISINFECTED FOR:

DRINKING,

COOKING,

MAKING ANY
PREPARED DRINK,

FOR BRUSHING TEETH.



1. Use bottled water that has
not been exposed to flood
waters if it is available.


2. If you don't have bottled
water, you should boil water
to make it safe.

Boiling water will kill most
types of disease-causing
organisms that may be present.

If the water is cloudy, filter
it through clean cloths or allow
it to settle, and draw off the
clear water for boiling.

Boil the water for one minute,
let it cool, and store it in
clean containers with covers.


3. If you can't boil water, you
can disinfect it using household
bleach.

Bleach will kill some, but not all,
types of disease-causing organisms
that may be in the water.

If the water is cloudy, filter it
through clean cloths or allow it
to settle, and draw off the clear
water for disinfection.

Add 1/8 teaspoon (or 8 drops) of
regular, unscented, liquid household
bleach for each gallon of water, stir
it well and let it stand for 30 minutes
before you use it. Store disinfected
water in clean containers with covers.


4. If you have a well that has been
flooded, the water should be tested
and disinfected after flood waters
recede.

If you suspect that your well may be
contaminated, contact your local or
state health department or agriculture
extension agent for specific advice.



U.S. federal agencies,
The Red Cross:

recommend these same
four steps to disinfect
drinking water in an
emergency.



EPA
http://www.epa.gov/safewater/faq/emerg.html/



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SECTION 7



SOLAR
STILL




A solar still is a very simple device
for distilling water, powered by the
heat of the sun.


A few basic types
of solar stills are:

cone shaped,

boxlike,

pit.



For cone solar stills, impure water is
inserted into the container, where it
is evaporated by the sun through clear
plastic.
The pure water vapor condenses on top
and drips down to the side, where it
is collected and removed.

The most sophisticated of these
are the box shaped types.

The least sophisticated are the
pit types.



Solar still
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_still



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SECTION 8



SOLAR
WATER
DISINFECTION




Solar Water Disinfection, or SODIS,
is a method to disinfect water using
sunlight and PET bottles.


Sunlight is treating the contaminated
water through three synergistic
radiation mechanisms.


UV-A (wavelength 320-400nm) which react
with oxygen dissolved in the water
produces highly reactive forms of oxygen
(oxygen free radicals and hydrogen
peroxides) in the water.

These reactive forms of oxygen kill the
microorganisms.


UV-A also interferes with the reproduction
cycle of bacteria by damaging their DNA.


Infrared heating the water. If the water
temperatures raises above 50C, the
disinfection process is three times faster.


The combined effect of all three mechanisms
is greater than that of each individual
components.



Solar Water Disinfection
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_water_disinfection



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SECTION 9



SOLAR
WATER
LINKS




Aqua Alternatives
http://www.enviroalternatives.com/

Alternate Energy Technologies
http://www.aetsolar.com/

California Solar Center
http://www.californiasolarcenter.org/

Conservation Technologies
http://www.conservtech.com/

Dave's planet
http://www.davesplanet.net/solarstill/

ECOMALL
http://www.ecomall.com/

E HOW
http://www.ehow.com/how_12584_make-solar-still.html/

The El Paso Solar Energy Association's (EPSEA)
http://www.epsea.org/stills.html/



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Environmental Solar Design
http://www.environmentalsolardesign.com/

THE FARM
http://www.thefarm.org/

ID SOLAR
http://www.idsolar.com/

King Solar.com
http://www.kingsolar.com/

Light Energy Systems
http://www.lightenergysystems.com/

Real Goods
http://www.realgoods.com/

Sierra Solar Systems
http://www.sierrasolar.com/

Solar Box Cookers
http://www.solarcooking.org/



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The Solar Still
http://www.desertusa.com/mag98/dec/stories/water.html/

Sol Aqua
http://www.solaqua.com/

Solar Direct
http://www.solardirect.com/

Solar Energy.com
http://www.solarenergy.com/

Solar H2OT
http://www.solarh2ot.com/

Solar Roofs.com
http://www.solarroofs.com/

Solar Water Disinfection
http://www.sodis.ch/

The Solar Water Purifier
http://www.solarwaterpurifier.com/

TCT Solar
http://www.tctsolar.com/



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SECTION 10



CLEAN
WATER
LINKS




American Water Works Association
http://www.awwa.org/

AVERT DISASTERS
http://www.avertdisasters.org/

Backwoods Home Magazine
http://www.backwoodshome.com/

California Solar Center
http://www.californiasolarcenter.org/

Camping Survival.com
http://www.campingsurvival.com/

Charity Water
https://www.charitywater.org/about/

Clean Water America
http://www.cleanwateramerica.com/

Co-op America Foundation
http://www.coopamerica.org/

Dave's planet
http://www.davesplanet.net/



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Desert USA
http://www.desertusa.com/

The Drinking Water Inspectorate
http://www.dwi.gov.uk/

The Eden Project
http://www.edenproject.com/

Ecological Society of America
http://www.esa.org/

Environmental Protection Agency
http://www.epa.gov/

The El Paso Solar Energy Association's (EPSEA)
http://www.epsea.org/

ENVIRONMENTAL DEFENSE
http://www.environmentaldefense.org/

THE FARM
http://www.thefarm.org/



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Green Pages
http://www.eco-web.com/

Inhabitat
http://www.inhabitat.com/

Knowledge Hound
http://www.knowledgehound.com/

National Safety Foundation
http://www.nsf.org/

Net Works Earth
http://www.NetWorkEarth.org/

Open Water Project
http://www.openwaterproject.org/

OTHER POWER.COM
http://www.otherpower.com/

Reuters Alert Net
http://www.alertnet.org/



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Safe Water International
http://www.safewaterintl.org/

Safe Water for International Travelers
http://www.safewateronline.com/

Sol Aqua
http://www.solaqua.com/

The Solar Water Purifier
http://www.solarwaterpurifier.com/

Tree Hugger
http://www.treehugger.com/

Trees for Life
http://www.treesforlife.org/

U.S. Beach Water Quality Monitoring
http://www.beaches911.org/

U.S. National Agricultural Library
http://www.nal.usda.gov/

Water Partners International
http://www.water.org/

World Health Organisation
http://www.who.int/



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