BIOCHAR
DARK EARTH
CARBONIZATION
GASIFICATION
TERRA PRETA




BIOCHAR

GASIFICATION

CHARCOAL

HORTICULTURE

DARK EARTH

TERRA PRETA

AGROFORESTRY

PYROLYSIS

THERMOLYSIS

THERMAL DEPOLYMERIZATION TDP

TERRAFORMING

GEOENGINEERING

BIOCHAR LINKS

BIOCHAR RESOURCES



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SECTION 1



BIOCHAR




Biochar is charcoal created by pyrolysis of biomass.
The resulting charcoal-like material is a form of
carbon capture and storage. Charcoal is a stable
solid and rich in carbon content, and thus, can be
used to lock carbon in the soil.

Biochar is of increasing interest because of concerns
about climate change caused by emissions of carbon
dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases (GHG).

Current biochar projects are small scale and make no
significant impact on the overall global carbon budget,
although expansion of this technique has been advocated
as a geoengineering approach. Further research is in
progress, notably by the University of Edinburgh, which
has a dedicated research unit.

Pre-Columbian Amazonian Natives used biochar to enhance
soil productivity and made it by smoldering agricultural
waste. European settlers called it Terra Preta de Indio.

Biochar is a high-carbon, fine-grained residue which used
to be produced using centuries-old techniques by smoldering
biomass (i.e., covering burning biomass with soil and letting
it smolder).

The ancient method for producing biochar as a soil additive
was the “pit” or “trench” method, which created terra preta,
or dark soil.



There are three primary methods
for deploying a pyrolysis system.


The first is a centralized system where all biomass in the
region would be brought to a pyrolysis plant for processing.

A second system would effectively mean a lower-tech pyrolysis
kiln for each farmer or small group of farmers.

A third system is a mobile system where a truck equipped with
a pyrolyzer would be driven around to pyrolyze biomass. It
would be powered using the syngas stream, return the biochar
to the earth, and transport the bio-oil to a refinery or
storage site.



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BIOCHAR
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biochar




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SECTION 2



GASIFICATION




Gasification is a process that converts carbonaceous
materials, such as coal, petroleum, biofuel, or
biomass, into carbon monoxide and hydrogen by reacting
the raw material, such as house waste, or compost at
high temperatures with a controlled amount of oxygen
and/or steam.

The resulting gas mixture is called synthesis gas or
syngas and is itself a fuel. Gasification is a method
for extracting energy from many different types of
organic materials.

The advantage of gasification is that using the syngas
is potentially more efficient than direct combustion
of the original fuel because it can be combusted at
higher temperatures or even in fuel cells, so that
the thermodynamic upper limit to the efficiency
defined by Carnot's rule is higher or not applicable.

Syngas may be burned directly in internal combustion
engines, used to produce methanol and hydrogen, or
converted via the Fischer-Tropsch process into
synthetic fuel.

Gasification can also begin with materials that are
not otherwise useful fuels, such as biomass or organic
waste. In addition, the high-temperature combustion
refines out corrosive ash elements such as chloride
and potassium, allowing clean gas production from
otherwise problematic fuels.



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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gasification



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Wood gas generator
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wood_gas_generator


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Fluidized bed reactor
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluidized_bed_reactor




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SECTION 3



CHARCOAL




Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of
impure carbon obtained by removing water and
other volatile constituents from animal and
vegetation substances.

Charcoal is usually produced by slow pyrolysis,
the heating of wood, sugar, bone char, or other
substances in the absence of oxygen.

The resulting soft, brittle, lightweight, black,
porous material resembles coal and is 85% to 98%
carbon with the remainder consisting of volatile
chemicals and ash.




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SECTION 3A



HORTICULTURE




One additional use of charcoal rediscovered recently
is in horticulture. Although American gardeners have
been using charcoal for a short while, research on
Terra preta soils in the Amazon has found the wide-
spread use of biochar by pre-Columbian natives to
turn otherwise unproductive soil into very rich soil.

The technique may find modern application, both to
improve soils and as a means of carbon sequestration.



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Charcoal
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charcoal




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SECTION 4



DARK
EARTH




Dark Earth in archaeology is an archaeological
horizon often as much as 0.6m - 0.9m (2 - 3 ft)
thick which covers Roman remains, notably in
London and in Roman ruins in the rest of England,
particularly urban ones. The stratum underlying
the dark earth is often of a date varying from
the 2nd to the 5th Century AD, and the stratum
overlying is often, in the City of London, 9th
Century.

The Dark Earth shows little evidence of any
depositional structure in it or even of horizons,
although tip lines are sometimes seen.

The material is high in organic matter, including
charcoal which gives it the characteristic dark
colour; it also contains fragments of brick and
tile. It may represent vacant lots on the edge
of urban centres and in London has been taken as
evidence of the decline of Londinium's population
or of its partial displacement outside the city
walls.



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Dark Earth
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dark_earth




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SECTION 4A



TERRA
PRETA




Terra preta (“dark earth” in Portuguese) refers to
expanses of very dark, fertile anthropogenic soils
found in the Amazon Basin. Terra preta owes its
name to its very high charcoal content, and was
indeed made by adding a mixture of charcoal, bone,
and manure to the otherwise relatively infertile
Amazonian soil over many years.

It is also known as “Amazonian dark earth” or
“Indian black earth”. In Portuguese its full
name is “Terra preta do índio” or “Terra preta
de índio”. Terra mulata is lighter or brownish
in color.

It is less prone to nutrient leaching, which is
a major problem in most rainforest soils.

Terra preta soils are of pre-Columbian nature and
were created by humans between 450 BC and AD 950.
The soil's depth can reach 2 metres (6 feet).
Thousands of years after its creation it has been
reported to regenerate itself at the rate of 1
centimetre per year[7] by the local farmers and
caboclos in Brazil's Amazonian basin, and they
seek it out for use and for sale as valuable
compost.



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Terra Preta
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terra_preta




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SECTION 5



AGROFORESTRY




Agroforestry is an integrated approach of using
the interactive benefits from combining trees
and shrubs with crops and/or livestock.

It combines agricultural and forestry technologies
to create more diverse, productive, profitable,
healthy and sustainable land-use systems.



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Agroforest
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agroforestry




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SECTION 6



PYROLYSIS




Pyrolysis is the chemical decomposition of a
condensed substance by heating. The word is
coined from the Greek-derived elements pyro
"fire" and lysys "decomposition".

Pyrolysis is a special case of thermolysis,
and is most commonly used for organic
materials. It occurs spontaneously at high
temperatures (ie above 300 °C for wood, it
varies for other material), for example in
wildfires or when vegetation comes into
contact with lava in volcanic eruptions.

It does not involve reactions with oxygen
or any other reagents but can take place
in their presence. Extreme pyrolysis,
which leaves only carbon as the residue,
is called carbonization and is also
related to the chemical process of
charring.



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Pyrolysis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyrolysis




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SECTION 7



THERMOLYSIS




Thermal decomposition, also called thermolysis,
is defined as a chemical reaction in which a
chemical substance breaks up into at least two
chemical substances when heated.

The reaction is usually endothermic as heat is
required to break chemical bonds in the compound
undergoing decomposition. The decomposition
temperature of a substance is the temperature at
which the substance decomposes into smaller
substances or into its constituent atoms.



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Thermolysis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermolysis




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SECTION 8



THERMAL
DEPOLYMERIZATION
TDP




Thermal depolymerization (TDP) is a process
using hydrous pyrolysis for the reduction
of complex organic materials (usually waste
products of various sorts, often known as
biomass and plastic) into light crude oil.

It mimics the natural geological processes
thought to be involved in the production of
fossil fuels.



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Thermal Depolymerization
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermal_depolymerization




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SECTION 9



TERRAFORMING




Terraforming (literally, "Earth-shaping") of a planet,
moon, or other body is the hypothetical process of
deliberately modifying its atmosphere, temperature,
surface topography or ecology to be similar to those
of Earth to make it habitable by humans.

The term is sometimes used more generally as a synonym
for planetary engineering. The concept of terraforming
developed from both science fiction and actual science.




Planetary Engineering:

the application of technology for the purpose of
influencing the global properties of a planet.



Geoengineering:

planetary engineering applied specifically to the
Earth. It includes only those macroengineering
concepts that deal with the alteration of some
global parameter, such as the greenhouse effect,
atmospheric composition, insolation or impact
flux.



Terraforming:

a process of planetary engineering, specifically
directed at enhancing the capacity of an
extraterrestrial planetary environment to support
life as we know it. The ultimate in terraforming
would be to create an open planetary biosphere
emulating all the functions of the biosphere of
the Earth, one that would be fully habitable for
human beings.



Astrophysical Engineering:

taken to represent proposed activities, relating
to future habitation, that are envisaged to occur
on a scale greater than that of "conventional"
planetary engineering.



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Terraforming
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terraforming




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SECTION 10



GEOENGINEERING




The modern concept of geoengineering is usually
taken to mean proposals to deliberately manipulate
the Earth's climate to counteract the effects of
global warming from greenhouse gas emissions.

The National Academy of Sciences defined
geoengineering as "options that would
involve large-scale engineering of our
environment in order to combat or
counteract the effects of changes in
atmospheric chemistry.

Some geoengineering techniques are based on
carbon sequestration. These seek to reduce
greenhouse gases in the atmosphere directly.
These include direct methods (e.g. carbon
dioxide air capture) and indirect methods
(e.g. ocean iron fertilization).



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Geoengineering
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geoengineering




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List of geoengineering topics
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_geoengineering_topics



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List of proposed geoengineering projects
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_proposed_geoengineering_projects




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SECTION 11



BIOCHAR
LINKS




ABC NET
http://www.abc.net.au/

The Alchemical Nursery Project
http://www.alchemicalnursery.org/

The Biochar
http://www.biochar.org

Biochar Fund
http://www.biocharfund.org/

Biochar Info
http://www.biochar.info/

Biofuelwatch
http://www.biofuelwatch.org.uk/

BIOMASS MAGAZINE
http://www.biomassmagazine.com/

Critical Times
http://www.criticaltimes.com.au/



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Energy Bulletin
http://www.energybulletin.net/

Eclipse Now
http://www.eclipsenow.org/

Eterna Green
http://www.eternagreen.com/what-is-biochar

Green Left
http://www.greenleft.org.au/

International Biochar Initiative
http://www.biochar-international.org/

Institute for Governance & Sustainable Development
http://www.igsd.org

International Biochar Initiative
http://www.biochar-international.org/home.html

International Network for Environmental Compliance & Enforcement
http://www.inece.org

MOTHER EARTH NEWS
http://www.motherearthnews.com/Organic-Gardening/Make-Biochar-To-Improve-Your-Soil.aspx



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NATURE
http://www.nature.com/

ORGANIC SYSTEMS
http://www.organic-systems.org/

Peace Magazine
http://www.peacemagazine.org/archive/v25n2p08.htm

Re:char
http://www.re-char.com/

SciDev.Net
http://www.scidev.net/en/features/-dark-earth-and-its-carbon-holding-powers.html

Scientific American
http://www.sciam.com/

SCIENCE DAILY
http://www.sciencedaily.com/

VEN EARTH
http://www.venearth.com

World changing
http://www.worldchanging.com/



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SECTION 12



BIOCHAR
RESOURCES




Ablation
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ablation

Afforestation
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afforestation

Analog forestry
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analog_forestry

Augers
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auger

Biofuel
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biofuel

Biomass
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biomass



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Biomass (ecology)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biomass_(ecology)

Buffer strip
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buffer_strip

Carbon sequestration
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_sequestration

Charcoal
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charcoal

CO2 sequestration
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CO2_sequestration

Coal gasification
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coal_gasification

Collaborative innovation network
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collaborative_innovation_network



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Deforestation
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deforestation

Desertification
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desertification

Destructive distillation
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Destructive_distillation

Dextrin
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dextrin

Dry distillation
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dry_distillation

Ecological engineering
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecological_engineering

Ecological engineering methods
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecological_engineering_methods



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Ecotechnology
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecotechnology

Energy-efficient landscaping
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy-efficient_landscaping

Fluidization
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluidization

Fluidized bed
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluidized_bed

Fluidized bed combustion
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluidized_bed_combustion

Forest farming
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forest_farming

Forest gardening
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forest_gardening

Gasification
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gasification



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Geoengineering
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geoengineering

Great Plains Shelterbelt
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Plains_Shelterbelt

Hedgerow
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hedgerow

Home gardens
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Home_gardens

Human ecology
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_ecology

Karrick process
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karrick_process

List of solid waste treatment technologies
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_solid_waste_treatment_technologies

Macro-engineering
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macro-engineering



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Megaprojects
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Megaprojects

Permaculture
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Permaculture

Permaforestry
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Permaforestry

Planetary Engineering
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planetary_Engineering

Proposed sahara forest project
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proposed_sahara_forest_project

Pyrolytic coating
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyrolytic_coating

Pyrolysis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyrolysis

Sand fence
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sand_fence



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Seawater Greenhouse
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seawater_Greenhouse

Slash-and-char
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slash-and-char

Sustainable agriculture
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainable_agriculture

Terra preta
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terra_preta

Windbreak
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windbreak

Wildcrafting
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wildcrafting

Wood gas
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wood_gas




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