BEE
BEE SPECIES
BEEKEEPING




BEE

APIARY

BEEKEEPING

BUMBLE BEES

HONEY BEES

FACTS ABOUT HONEYBEES

MASON BEES

LEAFCUTTING BEES

BEE RELATED TOPICS

MAKING A BEE-FRIENDLY GARDEN



BEE LINKS




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SECTION 1



BEE



Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, and are known
for their role in pollination and for producing honey and beeswax. Bees
are a monophyletic lineage within the superfamily Apoidea, presently
classified by the unranked taxon name Anthophila. There are nearly 20,000
known species of bees in seven to nine recognized families, though many
are undescribed and the actual number is probably higher. They are found
on every continent except Antarctica, in every habitat on the planet that
contains insect-pollinated flowering plants.

Bees are adapted for feeding on nectar and pollen, the former primarily as
an energy source and the latter primarily for protein and other nutrients.
Most pollen is used as food for larvae.

The best-known bee species is the European honey bee, which, as its name
suggests, produces honey, as do a few other types of bee. Human management
of this species is known as beekeeping or apiculture.



Bee
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bee



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SECTION 2



APIARY




An apiary (also known as a bee yard) is a place where beehives of
honey bees are kept. Traditionally beekeepers (also known as apiarists)
paid land rent in honey for the use of small parcels. Some farmers will
provide free apiary sites, because they need pollination, and farmers
who need many hives often pay for them to be moved to the crops when
they bloom.



APIARY
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apiary



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SECTION 3



BEEKEEPING




Beekeeping (or apiculture, from Latin apis, bee) is the maintenance
of honey bee colonies, commonly in hives, by humans. A beekeeper
(or apiarist) keeps bees in order to collect honey and other products
of the hive (including beeswax, propolis, pollen, and royal jelly),
to pollinate crops, or to produce bees for sale to other beekeepers.
A location where bees are kept is called an apiary or "bee yard".



Castes


A colony of bees consists of three castes of bee:


a queen bee, which is normally the only breeding female in the colony;

a large number of female worker bees, typically 30,00050,000 in number;

a number of male drones, ranging from thousands in a strong hive in spring
to very few during dearth or cold season.



BEEKEEPING
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beekeeping



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SECTION 4



BUMBLE BEE




A bumble bee (also written as bumblebee) is any member of the bee
genus Bombus, in the family Apidae. There are over 250 known species,
existing primarily in the Northern Hemisphere although they are common
in New Zealand and in the Australian state of Tasmania.

Bumble bees are social insects that are characterised by black and yellow
body hairs, often in bands. However, some species have orange or red on
their bodies, or may be entirely black. Another obvious (but not unique)
characteristic is the soft nature of the hair (long, branched setae), called
pile, that covers their entire body, making them appear and feel fuzzy. They
are best distinguished from similarly large, fuzzy bees by the form of the
female hind leg, which is modified to form a corbicula: a shiny concave surface
that is bare, but surrounded by a fringe of hairs used to transport pollen (in
similar bees, the hind leg is completely hairy, and pollen grains are wedged
into the hairs for transport).

Like their relatives the honey bees, bumble bees feed on nectar and gather pollen
feed their young.



Agricultural use



Bumble bees are increasingly cultured for agricultural use as pollinators because
they can pollinate plant species that other pollinators cannot by using a technique
known as buzz pollination. For example, bumble bee colonies are often placed in
greenhouse tomato production, because the frequency of buzzing that a bumble bee
exhibits effectively releases tomato pollen.

The agricultural use of bumble bees is limited to pollination. Because bumble bees
do not overwinter the entire colony, they are not obliged to stockpile honey, and
are therefore not useful as honey producers.



BUMBLE BEE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bumblebee



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SECTION 5



HONEY BEE




Honey bees (or honeybees) are bees of the genus Apis, primarily
distinguished by the production and storage of honey and the
construction of perennial, colonial nests from wax. Honey bees
are the only extant members of the tribe Apini, all in the genus
Apis. Currently, only seven species of honey bee are recognized,
with a total of 44 subspecies,[1] though historically, from six
to 11 species have been recognised. Honey bees represent only a
small fraction of the roughly 20,000 known species of bees. Some
other types of related bees produce and store honey, but only
members of the genus Apis are true honey bees. The study of honey
bees is known as apiology.



Honey bee
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Honey_bee#See_also



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SECTION 6



FACTS ABOUT
HONEYBEES




Pollination

Agriculture depends greatly on the honeybee for pollination. Honeybees
account for 80% of all insect pollination. Without such pollination,
we would see a significant decrease in the yield of fruits and vegetables.



Pollen

Bees collect 66 lbs of pollen per year, per hive. Pollen is the male germ
cells produced by all flowering plants for fertilization and plant embryo
formation. The Honeybee uses pollen as a food. Pollen is one of the richest
and purest natural foods, consisting of up to 35% protein, 10% sugars,
carbohydrates, enzymes, minerals, and vitamins A (carotenes), B1 (thiamin),
B2 (riboflavin), B3 (nicotinic acid), B5 (panothenic acid), C (ascorbic acid),
H (biotin), and R (rutine).



Honey

Honey is used by the bees for food all year round. There are many types, colors
and flavors of honey, depending upon its nectar source. The bees make honey from
the nectar they collect from flowering trees and plants. Honey is an easily
digestible, pure food. Honey is hydroscopic and has antibacterial qualities. Eating
local honey can fend off allergies.



Beeswax

Secreted from glands, beeswax is used by the honeybee to build honey comb. It is
used by humans in drugs, cosmetics, artists' materials, furniture polish and candles.



Propolis

Collected by honeybees from trees, the sticky resin is mixed with wax to make a sticky
glue. The bees use this to seal cracks and repair their hive. It is used by humans as
a health aid, and as the basis for fine wood varnishes.



Royal Jelly

The powerful, milky substance that turns an ordinary bee into a Queen Bee. It is made
of digested pollen and honey or nectar mixed with a chemical secreted from a gland in
a nursing bee's head. It commands premium prices rivaling imported caviar, and is used
by some as a dietary supplement and fertility stimulant. It is loaded with all of the
B vitamins.



Bee Venom

The "ouch" part of the honeybee. Although sharp pain and some swelling and itching are
natural reactions to a honeybee sting, a small percentage of individuals are highly
allergic to bee venom. "Bee venom therapy" is widely practiced overseas and by some in
the USA to address health problems such as arthritis, neuralgia, high blood pressure,
high cholesterol and even MS.



FACTS ABOUT HONEYBEES
http://www.backyardbeekeepers.com/facts.html



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SECTION 7



MASON BEE




Mason bee is a common name for species of bees in the genus Osmia,
of the family Megachilidae. They are named from their habit of making
compartments of mud in their nests, which are made in hollow reeds or
holes in wood made by wood-boring insects.

Species of the genus include the orchard mason bee, Osmia lignaria, the
blueberry bee, O. ribifloris, and the hornfaced bee, O. cornifrons. The
former two are native to the Americas and the latter to Japan,
although O. lignaria and O. cornifrons have been moved from their native
ranges for commercial purposes. The red mason bee, Osmia rufa, is found
across the European continent. There are over 300 species across the
Northern Hemisphere, and more than 130 species of mason bees in North
America; most occur in the temperate regions, and are active from spring
through late summer.

Osmia species are usually metallic green or blue, though many are blackish.
Most have black ventral scopae which are difficult to notice unless laden
with pollen. They have arolia between their claws, unlike Megachile or
Anthidium species.



MASON BEE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mason_bee



Pollination
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pollination




Glossary of beekeeping
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glossary_of_beekeeping




List of honey plants
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_honey_plants




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SECTION 8



LEAFCUTTING
BEE




Leafcutting Bee, common name for bees that use pieces of leaves or
flower petals to construct their nests. Leafcutting bees are found
throughout the world. About 140 species occur in the United States
and Canada. The term leafcutting bee also refers to a large number
of related species, not all of which build their nests with leaf
pieces. In the entire group, there are over 3000 species worldwide
and more than 600 species in the United States and Canada.

Leafcutting bees are black bees with white or silvery hairs, and the
top of the abdomen may have fine bands of white hairs. The underside
of the female's abdomen has a dense brush of hairs that is used for
carrying pollen. Males are usually smaller and in many species they
have hairier faces than females. The bees range in size from small
to moderately large, usually 1 to 2 cm (0.4 to 0.8 in) long.



Leafcutting Bee
http://www.everythingabout.net/articles/biology/animals/arthropods/insects/bees/leafcutting_bee/



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SECTION 9



BEE
RELATED
TOPICS




Bee keeping
http://www.everythingabout.net/articles/biology/animals/arthropods/insects/bees/beekeeping/

Bumble Bee
http://www.everythingabout.net/articles/biology/animals/arthropods/insects/bees/bumble_bee/

Carpenter Bee
http://www.everythingabout.net/articles/biology/animals/arthropods/insects/bees/carpenter_bee/

Digger Bee
http://www.everythingabout.net/articles/biology/animals/arthropods/insects/bees/digger_bee/

Honey
http://www.everythingabout.net/articles/biology/animals/arthropods/insects/bees/honey/

Honey Bee
http://www.everythingabout.net/articles/biology/animals/arthropods/insects/bees/honey_bee/

Killer Bee
http://www.everythingabout.net/articles/biology/animals/arthropods/insects/bees/killer_bee/

Mason Bee
http://www.everythingabout.net/articles/biology/animals/arthropods/insects/bees/mason_bee/

Orchid Bee
http://www.everythingabout.net/articles/biology/animals/arthropods/insects/bees/orchid_bee/

Sweat Bee
http://www.everythingabout.net/articles/biology/animals/arthropods/insects/bees/sweat_bee/



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SECTION 10



MAKING
A BEE-FRIENDLY
GARDEN




Designing a Bee Garden


Inviting an array of bees into your own backyard is simple when you
plant their favorite flowers.

By providing nectar and pollen as food and creating shelters in your
garden space, you will create new habitat for bees, which is important,
as their natural habitats become less and less abundant. Researchers
have found that planting bee-friendly gardens in your community may
increase the diversity of bees, even within the concrete-laden urban
areas in which many of us reside. That's great news for beespotters!


There are four essential elements for designing a bee garden:


1.Choose plants that are best suited for attracting bees in
your region

2.Limit the use of insecticides that are toxic to bees and other
beneficial pollinators

3.Provide shelter in your garden from elements such as wind, rain,
or cold

4.Create habitat for the nest of the pollinator to support the entire
life cycle of the pollinator from egg to larva to adult.



Making a Bee-Friendly Garden
http://beespotter.mste.illinois.edu/topics/beegarden/



Bee Links
http://peprimer.com/bee-links.html




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How to Make a Bee Trap
https://www.wikihow.com/Make-a-Bee-Trap




How to Identify a Queen Bee
http://www.wikihow.com/Identify-a-Queen-Bee




The Xerces Society
http://www.xerces.org/




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