AQUACULTURE


AQUACULTURE



AERATION, OCEAN , ANAEROBIC, AEROBIC,
ESTUARIES, LITTORAL, SEAWEED, ALGAE,
OXYGENATOR, WATER-TABLE, AQUACULTURE,
PLANTS, PONDS, RIVERS, STREAMS, COLIFORM,
AQUIFERS, AQUA, LAKES, PLANKTON, EMERGENT.




AQUACULTURE

HYDROPONICS

AQUACULTURE HYDROPONICS LINKS

MARICULTURE

ALGAECULTURE SEAWEED

DELTA

KELP

PLANKTON

FLOODPLAINS

CHANNELIZATION

OCEAN OCEANOGRAPHY

MARINE

MARINE LINKS

LIMNOLOGY/HYDROBIOLOGY

ANIMAL ENVIRONMENTS

AMPHIBIANS REPTILES

INSECTS

MARINE MAMMALS

BRACKISH WATERS

AEROPONICS



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SECTION 1



AQUACULTURE




AQUACULTURE:



Aquaculture is the cultivation of the natural
produce of water, such as fish or shellfish,
algae and other aquatic organisms.
Mariculture is specifically marine aquaculture,
and thus is a subset of aquaculture.

Some examples of aquaculture include raising
catfish and tilapia in freshwater ponds, growing
cultured pearls, and farming salmon in net-pens
set out in a bay. Fish farming is a common type.

Aquaculture was used in China circa 2500 BC. When
the waters lowered after river floods, some fishes,
namely carps, were held in artificial lakes.

Their brood were later fed using nymphs and feces
from silkworms used for silk production.




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SECTION 1A



AQUACULTURE
HYDROPONICS




AQUACULTURE
The cultivation of organisms in water.
This is in most cases species of fish,
crawfish,and oysters. These are some
times integrated with gardens, where
the plants use the nutrient-rich water
as fertilizer for crops.


HYDROPONICS
The cultivation of crops in a
nutrient-rich water culture.




HYDROPONIC
GROWTH
MATERIALS



Sphagan moss

Peagram (rock and/or sand)

Per-vemic-lite

Rock wool

Popcorn clay




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SECTION 1B



AQUATIC
HYDROPONIC
LINKS




AMERICAN FISHERIES SOCIETY
http://www.fisheries.org/

AQUACULTURAL ENGINEERING SOCIETY
http://www.aesweb.org/

AQUACULTURE DIRECTORY
http://www.aquaculturedirectory.com/

AQUACULTURE MAGAZINE
http://www.aquaculturemag.com/

AQUACULTURE NETWORK INFORMATION CENTER
http://www.aquanic.org/

THE AQUACULTURE NEWS
http://www.aquaculturenews.com/

AQUACULTURE ONLINE
http://www.aquaculturemag.com

AQUAFIND
http://www.aquafind.com/

AQUAGUIDE
http://www.aquaguide.com/

AQUARIAN CONCEPTS COMMUNITY
http://www.aqurianconcepts.org/

AQUATIC GARDENERS ASSOCIATION
http://www.aquatic-gardeners.org/

THE AQUATIC PLANT MANAGEMENT SOCIETY
http://www.apms.org/

AQUAMEDIA
http://www.aquamedia.org/

AQUATIC GARDENERS ASSOCIATION
http://www.aquatic-gardeners.org/

AQUATIC NETWORK
http://www.aquanet.com/

AQUAPONICS
http://www.aquaponics.com/

AQUATIC PLANT MANAGEMENT SOCIETY
http://www.apms.org/

CENTER FOR TROPICAL AND
SUBTROPICAL AQUACULTURE

http://www.ctsa.org/

FISHBASE
http://www.fishbase.org/

FISHERIES TECHNOLOGY ASSOCIATES
http://www.ftai.com/

FISH FARMING
http://www.fishfarming.com/

FISH FARMING NEWS
http://www.fish-news.com/

FISHGEN
http://www.fishgen.com/

FISHING INFORMATION CENTER
http://www.fishing-only.com/

FISH POND INFO
http://www.fishpondinfo.com/

GLOBAL AQUACULTURE ALLIANCE
http://www.gaalliance.org/

GLOBAL AQUATICS
http://www.growfish.com/

HYDROFRAM
http://www.hydrofram.com/

HYDROPONIC GARDEN
http://www.hydroponicgarden.net/

HYDROPONIC SEARCH
http://www.hydroponicsearch.com/

NATIONAL AQUACULTURE ASSOCIATION
http://www.nationalaquaculture.org/

NORTH AMERICAN NATIVE
FISH ASSOCIATION

http://www.nanfa.org/

OVERGROW
http://www.overgrow.com/



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SECTION 2



MARICULTURE




MARICULTURE:

Mariculture is a specialized branch of
aquaculture.

Mariculture is the cultivation of marine
organisms for food, either in their
"natural environment", or in seawater in
ponds or raceways.
An example of the latter is the farming
of marine fish, prawns, or oysters in
saltwater ponds.

The Japanese have developed a clever
process for free ranching marine fish.
The principle is based on behavioral
conditioning and the migratory nature
of certain species of marine fish.

Fish farming is the principal form of
aquaculture, while other methods may
fall under mariculture.
It involves raising fish commercially
in tanks or enclosures, usually for
food.
A facility that releases juvenile fish
into the wild for recreational fishing
or to supplement a species' natural
numbers is generally referred to as a
fish hatchery.


Fish species raised by
fish farms include:

Salmon,
Catfish,
Tilapia,
Cod
Others.


Basically, there are two kinds of
aquaculture:

Extensive aquaculture based on
local photosynthetical production,

Intensive aquaculture, in which the
fishes are fed with external food
supply.

The management of these two kinds of
aquacultural systems are completely
different.
Trout and other sport fish are often
raised from eggs to fry or fingerlings
and then trucked to streams and released.
Normally, the fry are raised in long,
shallow concrete tanks, fed with fresh
stream water. The fry receive commercial
pelletized fish food




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SECTION 3



ALGAECULTURE




ALGAE
SEAWEED




Alga:
Algae:


Comprise several different groups of living
things which are similar to plants but are
not actually true plants. All algae lack true
leaves, roots, flowers, and other structures
specific to higher plants.
Traditionally they are distinguished from
bacteria and protozoa mainly in that they
are autotrophic, obtaining their energy
through photosynthesis. They are no longer
considered a natural group, but the term
is still used for convenience. The botanical
study of algae is called phycology.




ALGAECULTURE:

Algaculture is a form of aquaculture involving
the farming of species of algae for purposes of
producing food or other products that can be
extracted from the cultivated species.

The focus of this article is on the cultivation
and uses of microalgae:


MICROALGAE
also known as:
Phytoplankton,
Microphytes,
Planktonic algae,
Cyanobacteria.


CULTIVATION:

Algae can be cultured in raceway-type ponds and lakes.
Due to the fact that these systems are "open" to the
elements, sometimes called "open-pond" systems, they
are much more vulnerable to being invaded by other
algal species and bacteria.
The number of species that have been successfully
cultivated for a given purpose:
food source,
oil production,
pigments.
In an outdoor system, are relatively small. In open
systems you do not have control over water temperature,
and you have little control over lighting conditions.
The growing season is largely dependent on location and,
aside from tropical areas, is limited to the warmer months.
Some of the benefits of this type of system are that it is
one of the cheaper ones to produce, at the most basic you
only need to dig a trench or pond. It also has one of the
largest production capacities compared to other systems,
and depending on how large it's made.

A variation on the basic "open-pond" system is to close
it off, to cover your pond or pool with a greenhouse.
While this usually results in a smaller system,
(for economic reasons), it does take care of many of the
problems associated with an open system. It allows more
species to be able to be grown, it allows the species
that you are trying to grow to stay dominant, and it
extends the growing season, only slightly if unheated,
and if heated it can produce year round.

A pond covered with a greenhouse could be considered a
photobioreactor.


Different types of
photobioreactors include:

Tanks provided with a light source.

Polyethylene sleeves or bags.

Glass or plastic tubes.




SEAWEED




SEAWEED:
LAURENCIA:


The "branches" are multicellular. Much smaller
algae are seen growing attached to the structure
extending upwards in the lower right quarter
Enlarge.

Seaweed:

Seaweed:
Biologists, specifically Phycologists, consider seaweed
to refer any of a large number of marine benthic algae
that are multicellular, macrothallic, and thus
differentiated from most algae that tend to be microscopic
in size.

Seaweeds are usually types of brown or red algae that
are often found among other of algae, including green algae.
There are a few species of cyanobacteria however, that may
also be categorized as seaweeds. Named after terrestrial
"weeds", Seaweeds are not to be confused with things like
seagrasses, which are vascular plants and not algae.




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SECTION 4



DELTA




DELTA:

A delta is the mouth of a river where it
flows into an ocean, sea, desert or lake,
building outwards (as a deltaic deposit)
from sediment carried by the river and
deposited as the water current is
dissipated.

Deltaic deposits of larger, heavily-laden
rivers are characterised by the river
channel dividing into multiple streams
(distributaries), these divide and come
together again to form a maze of active
and inactive channels.

A related notion is estuaries, which is
another type of river mouth.

In rare cases the river delta is located
inside of a large valley and is called an
inverted river delta.

Sometimes a river will divide into multiple
branches in an inland area, only to rejoin
and continue to the sea; such an area is
known as an inland delta, and often occur
on former lake beds.




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SECTION 5



KELP




KELP:

Kelp are large seaweeds, belonging to
the brown algae and classified in the
order Laminariales.

Despite their appearance they are not
grouped with the normal aquatic or
land plants (kingdom Plantae), but
instead are included in either kingdom
Protista or Chromista.

There are about 30 different genera;
sometimes members of the order Fucales
are also considered kelp.

Kelp grows in underwater forests
(kelp forests) in clear, shallow, oceans,
requiring nutrient rich water below about
20°C, it offers a protection to some sea
creatures, or food for others.

It is known for its high growth rate, the
genus Macrocystis grows up to 30 cm per day,
to a total length of over 60 metres.



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SECTION 6



PLANKTON




PLANKTON:

Plankton are found throughout the
oceans,seas and lakes of Earth.

Plankton are drifting organisms that
inhabit the water column of oceans,
seas, and bodies of fresh water.

The study of plankton is termed planktology.
Individual plankton are referred to as
plankters.


Functional groups:

Plankton are primarily divided into broad
functional (or trophic level) groups:


Phytoplankton:
(from Greek phyton, or plant),

Autotrophic pro- or eukaryotic algae that
live near the water surface where there is
sufficient light to support photosynthesis.
Among the more important groups are the
diatoms, cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates.


Zooplankton:
(from Greek zoon, or animal),

Small protozoans or metazoans, crustaceans
and other animals that feed on other plankton.
Some of the eggs and larvae of larger animals,
such as fish, crustaceans, and annelids, are
included here.


Bacterioplankton:
bacteria and archaea,

Which play an important role in remineralising
organic material down the water column, many
phytoplankton are also bacterioplankton.

This scheme divides the plankton community into
broad producer, consumer and recycler groups.
In reality, even the trophic level of some the
plankton is not straightforward.




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SECTION 7



FLOODPLAINS




FLOODPLAINS
An area of wetlands that can
absorb large amounts of water
when it rains and rivers rise,
so they provide water control.




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SECTION 8



CHANNELIZATION




Straightening and deepening streams so
water will move faster, a marsh-drainage
tactic that can interfere with waste
assimilation capacity, disturb fish
and wildlife habitats, and aggravate
flooding.




CHANNELIZATION
LINKS




COASTAL ZONE
http://www.coastalzone.com/

INTERNATIONAL RIVERS NETWORK
http://www.irn.org/

MCGRAW-HILL HIGHER EDUCATION
http://www.mhhe.com/

OHIO ENVIRONMENTAL COUNCIL
http://www.theoec.org/



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SECTION 9



OCEAN
OCEANOGRAPHY




OCEAN
The whole body of salt water that
covers nearly three fourths of the
earth.




OCEANOGRAPHY
Oceanography, oceanology , marine science
is the study of the earth's oceans and their
interlinked ecosystems and chemical and
physical processes.
There are four major divisions
within the science:
marine geology,
including plate tectonics and other
study of the ocean floor;


Physical oceanography:
Which is concerned with the physical
attributes of the ocean such as its
temperature-salinity structure and
currents;


Chemical oceanography:
The study of the chemistry of the
ocean;


Biological oceanography:
also sometimes considered a subset
of marine biology, which is the study
of the flora and fauna of the ocean;


Meteorologic oceanography,
which is is concerned with how the
atmosphere and the ocean interact.




OCEAN
LINKS




THE NATIONAL OCEAN
INDUSTRIES ASSOCIATION
http://www.noia.org/

THE NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHIC
PARTNERSHIP PROGRAM
http://www.nopp.org/

NATIONAL OCEAN SERVICE
http://www.nos.noaa.gov/

THE OCEAN CONSERVANCY
http://www.oceanconservancy.org/

OCEAN US
http://www.ocean.us/

U.S. GOOS STEERING COMMITTEE
http://www.ocean.tamu.edu/



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SECTION 10



MARINE




MARINE:

Of the sea.
Plants of the sea and oceans.



Phycology:
algology:


Phycology is the study of algae. Algae are
eukaryotic, photosynthetic organisms which
usually live in an aquatic environment.

They are distinguished from the plant kingdom
by their lack of true roots and leaves. They
may be microscopic and single-celled or very
large and multicellular. Algae are important
as they are the primary producers for many of
the world's ecosystems.



CORALS:

Corals are small cnidarians, most of which form
colonies bound together by secreted calcium
carbonate. They include the most important reef
builders, found in tropical seas. They obtain
much of their energy from symbiotic algae called
zooxanthellae, and so are dependent on sunlight.

As a result, they are usually found at or near
the surface, though occurring to a depth of at
least 60 m. There are two main forms of coral,
hard and soft.




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SECTION 11




MARINE
ALGAE
SEAWEED
KELP
LINKS




THE MAINE SEAWEED COUNCIL
http://www.marine.com/

PARTNERSHIP FOR INTERDISCIPLINARY
STUDIES OF COASTAL OCEANS
http://www.piscoweb.org/

ALGAEBASE
http://www.algaebase.org/

MONTEREY BAY AQUARIUM
RESEARCH INSTITUTE
http://www.mbari.org/

WET WEB MEDIA
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/

THE WATER ZOO
http://www.waterzoo.co.uk/

SEAWEED
http://www.seaweed.ie/



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SECTION 12



LIMNOLOGY
HYDROBIOLOGY




Limnology:

Limnology is a discipline that concerns the
study of inland waters (both saline and fresh),
specifically lakes, ponds and rivers (both
natural and manmade), including their biological,
physical, chemical, and hydrological aspects. The
term limnology stems from Greek limne (lake) and
logos (study).


François-Alphonse Forel
(1841-1912) established the field with his studies
of Lake Geneva. Limnology traditionally is closely
related to hydrobiology, which is concerned with
the application of the principles and methods of
physics, chemistry, geology, and geography to
ecological problems.




Hydrobiology
Hydrobiology the science of life processes in water.
It is international, forming the basis for relevant
decisions in politics and society, since mankind is
dependent on water in so many ways.


Hydrologists,
Limnologists,
Ecologists,
Oceanographers,
Biologists,
Geographers,


All specialists concerned with the environment

Hydrobiology or aquatic ecology is the science of
life processes in water. It is a sub-discipline of
ecology.
Traditionally it is closely related to limnology
and can be divided into:


Lotic system ecology
(flowing waters)

Lentic system ecology
(still waters).


One of the most important subjects of research is
eutrophication. Special attention is paid to biotic
interactions in plankton assemblage including the
microbial loop, the mechanism of influencing water
blooms, phosphorus load and lake turnover.

Another subject of research is the acidification of
mountain lakes. Long-term studies are carried out on
changes in the ionic composition of the water of rivers,
lakes and reservoirs in connection with acid rain and
fertilisation.

The main goal of the research is elucidation of the
basic environmental functions of the ecosystem in
reservoirs, which are important for water quality
management.


-Acidification impact on lake
and reservoir ecosystems.

-Paleolimnology of remote
mountain lakes.

-Molecular ecology,
phylogeography and
taxonomy of Cladocera.

-Ultramorphology of
cladoceran limbs and
feeding adaptations.

-Chemical communication
in plankton
(prey-predator interaction).

-Biomanipulation of
water reservoirs.

-Cyclus of major nutrients
(phosphorus, nitrogen).

-Self-controlling mechanisms
at population and community level.




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SECTION 13




ANIMAL
ENVIRONMENTS




ANIMAL ENVIRONMENTS:

Animal environments are
classified as either:
Aquatic,
water,

Terrestrial,
land,

Amphibious,
water and land.


Aquatic animals require a watery
habitat, but do not necessarily
have to live entirely in water.

This term can be applied to aquatic
or sea mammals such as those in the
order Cetacea (whales), which cannot
survive on land, as well as:


four footed
mammals like the:

River otter,
Lutra canadensis,

Beavers,
family Castoridae.


It also includes aquatic birds that
either swim, wade or dive on the water
itself and live outside the water.


These include the
seabirds, such as:

Gulls,
family Laridae,

Pelicans,
family Pelecanidae,

Albatrosses,
family Diomedeidae,

Anseriforms,
ducks, swans,

Geese,
family Anatidae.


Aquatic animals can release
nitrongenous wastes as ammonia.

Amphibious and amphibiotic animals,
like frogs (the order Anura), while
they do require water, are separated
into their own environmental
classification.

The majority of amphibians (class
Amphibia) have an aquatic larval stage,
like a tadpole, but then live as
terrestrial adults, and may return to
the water to mate.

Aquatic animals are often of special
concern to conservationists because
of the delicacy of their environments.




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SECTION 14



AMPHIBIANS
REPTILES




AMPHIBIANS
Any of many cold-blooded animals
with backbones and moist, scaleless
skins. Their young usually have gills
and live in water until they develop
lungs for living on land. Frogs, newts,
salamamanders are amphibians.



REPTILES
Any of many cold-blooded animals
with backbones and lungs, usually
covered with horny plates or scales.
Snakes, lizards, alligators and
crocodiles are reptiles. Dinosaurs
were also reptiles.



TURTLES




TURTLES
Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines
(all living turtles belong to the crown group
Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by
a special bony or cartilagenous shell developed
from their ribs.

The term turtle is usually used for the aquatic
species, though aquatic fresh water turtles are
also called terrapins. The term is sometimes used
(esp. in North America) to refer to all members
of the order, including tortoises, which are
predominantly land-based.

The order of Testudines includes both extant
(living) and extinct species. About 300 species
are alive today. Some species of turtles are
highly endangered.



NOTE:

TURTLES
Turtles primarily are scavengers,
feeding on dead or dying fish,
and other aquatic organisms.
Turtles eat animals as well as
plants.





AMPHIBIANS
REPTILES
LINKS




ALL ABOUT FROGS
http://allaboutfrogs.org/

CANADIAN MUSEUM OF NATURE
http://www.nature.ca/

CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION CORPORATION
http://www.cccturtle.org/

FROGWEB
http://www.grogweb.gov/

PARTNERS IN AMPHIBIAN AND
REPTILE CONSERVATION
http://www.parcplace.org/

SOCIETY FOR THE STUDY
OF AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES
http://www.ssarherps.org/

STARFISH
http://www.atarfish.ch/

TURTLE TRAX
http://www.turtles.org/



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SECTION 15




AQUATIC
INSECTS




AQUATIC INSECTS
Aquatic Insects live some portion of their
life cycle in the water. They feed in the
same ways as other Insects. Some diving
insects, can hunt for food underwater
where land-living insects cannot compete.




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SECTION 16




MARINE
MAMMAL




MARINE MAMMAL:

A marine mammal is a mammal that is
primarily ocean-dwelling or depends
on the ocean for its food.

Mammals originally evolved on land,
but later marine mammals evolved to
live back in the ocean.

There are five groups
of marine mammals:

1. Order Sirenia:
the manatee,
dugong,
sea cow.

2. Order Carnivora,
family Ursidae:
polar bear.

3. Order Carnivora,
infrafamily Pinnipedia:
seal,
sea lion,
walrus.

4. Order Carnivora,
family Mustelidae:
Sea Otter
Marine Otter.

5. Order Cetacea:
whale,
dolphin,
porpoise.


Since different groups of marine
mammals originate from different
ancestors, this is a case of
convergent evolution.

Some of the primary differences
between marine mammals and other
marine life are:

Marine mammals breathe air,
while most other marine animals
extract oxygen from water.

Marine mammals have hair.
Cetaceans have little or no hair,
usually a very few bristles retained
around the head or mouth.
All members of the Carnivora have a
coat of fur or hair, but it is far
thicker and more important for
thermoregulation in Sea Otters and
Polar Bears than in seals or sea
lions.
Thick layers of fur contribute to
drag while swimming, and slow down
a swimming mammal, giving it a
disadvantage in speed.

Marine mammals have thick layers of
blubber used to insulate their bodies
and prevent heat loss. Sea Otters and
Polar Bears are exceptions, relying
more on fur and behavior to stave off
hypothermia.

Marine mammals give live birth.
Most marine mammals only give birth to
one calf or pup at a time, and are never
able to birth twins or larger litters.

Marine mammals feed off milk as young.
Maternal care is extremely important to
the survival of offspring that need to
develop a thick insulating layer of
blubber.
The milk from the mammary glands of
marine mammals often exceeds 40-50% fat
content to support the development of
blubber in the young.

Marine mammals maintain a high internal
body temperature.

Unlike most other marine life, marine
mammals carefully maintain a core
temperature much higher than their
environment.
Blubber, thick coats of fur, blubbles
of air between skin and water,
countercurrent exchange, and behaviors
such as hauling out, are all adaptations
that aid marine mammals in retention of
body heat.
The polar bear spends a large proportion
of its time in a marine environment, albeit
a frozen one. When it does swim in the open
sea it is extremely proficient and has been
shown to cover 74 km in a day. For these
reasons, some scientists regard it as a
marine mammal.




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SECTION 17




BRACKISH
WATER




BRACKISH
WATER:


Brackish water is water that is saltier
than fresh water, but not as salty as
sea water.

It may result from mixing of seawater
with fresh water, as in estuaries, or
it may occur as in brackish fossil
aquifers.
Technically, brackish water contains
between 0.5 and 30 grams of salt per
litre—more often expressed as 0.5 to
30 parts per thousand (ppt or ‰).

Thus, brackish covers a range of
salinity regimes and is not considered
a precisely defined condition.
It is characteristic of many brackish
surface waters that their salinity can
vary considerably over space and/or time.




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SECTION 18



AEROPONIC




Aeroponic Growth Rates Can
Exceed Soil By Up To Ten Times!

Aeroponics, organic gardening,
natural alternatives to pesticides,
and sustainable crop protection.

An easy to build aeroponics system that
can be assembled in an afternoon from
inexpensive, easy to find parts.

The Aerospring aeroponics system operates
by feeding plant roots with a gentle spray
of nutrient solution while they are then
suspended, mid-air, inside the aeroponic
chamber.

This "aeroponic" method of feeding exposes
roots to elevated levels of Oxygen that
stimulates metabolic activity and results
in growth beyond that which is possible
using conventional methods of horticulture.

In fact, growth rates of up to ten times
that possible in soil have been observed
when growing vegetables, herbs, flowers
and greens in an aeroponic system.




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AEROPONIC
LINKS




Aeroponic Design.com
http://www.aeroponicdesign.com/

Aeroponic Info
http://www.aeroponics.com/

Aeroponics and Bio-pharming Research
http://www.bio-pharms.com/

Biocontrol
http://www.biocontrols.com/

City Farmer
http://www.cityfarmer.org/

HOW-TO HYDROPONICS
http://www.howtohydroponics.com/

MAKE MAGAZINE
http://www.makezine.com/

Roll It Up.org
http://www.rollitup.org/

Tree Hugger
http://www.treehugger.com/



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