ALTERNATIVE
NATURAL
SUSTAINABLE
BUILDING




APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY

ECO-LIVING

ENGINEERS FOR A SUSTAINABLE WORLD

VILLAGE EARTH

NATURAL BUILDING

ADOBE CONSTRUCTION

CHIRPICI

COB CONSTRUCTION

DOME CONSTRUCTION

GEODESIC DOME CONSTRUCTION

MONLITHIC DOME CONSTRUCTION

CONCRETE SHELL CONSTRUCTION

THIN SHELL CONSTRUCTION

DUTCH BRICK CONSTRUCTION

EARTHBAG CONSTRUCTION

EARTHSHIP CONSTRUCTION

LOG CABIN CONSTRUCTION

MUDBRICK CONSTRUCTION

RAMMED EARTH CONSTRUCTION

RICE-HULL/BAGWALL CONSTRUCTION

SOD CONSTRUCTION

STRAW-BALE CONSTRUCTION

TIMBER FRAME CONSTRUCTION

POST & BEAM CONSTRUCTION

EARTH PLASTER CONSTRUCTION

BIOSHELTERS

OCEAN ARKS INTERNATIONAL

BIODESIGN BIOARCHITECTURE

WATTLE AND DAUB

BIODESIGN

GREEN BUILDING

ECOLOGY BUILDING LNKS




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SECTION 1



APPROPRIATE
TECHNOLOGY




APPROPRIATE
TECHNOLOGY

Appropriate technology is technology
that is most appropriate to the
environment and culture it is intended
to support.

It is suitable for use in developing
nations or underdeveloped rural areas
of industrialized nations, which may
lack the money and specialised expertise
to operate and maintain high technology.

In practice, it is often something that
might be described as using the simplest
and most benign level of technology that
can effectively achieve the intended
purpose in a particular location.

The terminology is not very precise.
Isolated rural communities in developed
nations may also benefit by using some
of the same technologies.

On the other hand, large cities in
developing countries may find it more
appropriate to use technologies usually
found in wealthy countries.

An expensive technology may be the most
appropriate in a wealthy community with
the ability to pay for and maintain it.




APPROPRIATE
TECHNOLOGY
LINKS




Appropriate Infrastructure
Development Group (AIDG)

http://www.aidg.org/

National Sustainable Agriculture
Information Service ATTRA

http://www.attra.org/

Blue Energy
http://www.blueenergy.org/



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SECTION 2



ECO-LIVING




ECO-LIVING
At the individual level, eco-living
means that we become as self-sufficient
as possible in terms of the necessities:
food and energy dependency.

This technology explores options for
reducing our food dependency on distant
corporations.

It also examines methods by which we can
take ourselves "off the grid" as much as
possible if not entirely.




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SECTION 3



ENGINEERS
FOR A
SUSTAINABLE
WORLD
ESW




ENGINEERS
FOR A
SUSTAINABLE
WORLD ESW

Engineers for a Sustainable World
(ESW) is a national not-for-profit
based in Ithaca, New York.

ESW's vision is a world in which
all people enjoy the basic resources
to pursue healthy,productive lives,
in harmony with each other, and
with our earth.

In pursuit of this vision, ESW's
mission is to mobilize engineers
through education, training, and
the practical actions, building
collaborative partnerships to meet
the needs of current and future
generations.




Engineers for a
Sustainable World

http://www.esustainableworld.org/




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SECTION 4



VILLAGE
EARTH




VILLAGE
EARTH

Village Earth: The Consortium for the
Sustainable Village-Based Development
is an international non-governmental
organization (NGO) founded in 1993
that promotes community-based
development through consultation,
training, and networking with
individuals, communities, and
organizations around the globe.

Village Earth was founded on the
premise that the problem that most
rural villages face is not:


"lack of money"

but rather a

"lack of access
to resources"

such as:
natural resources,
financial services,
or training.


What has distinquished Village Earth
with other development agencies is
its strong emphasis on creating access
to resources by:

A. Strengthening and/or supporting the
formation community-based organizations
around specific sectors and appropriate
technology such as watershed management
or energy.

B. A horizontal networking approach that
seeks to link individuals and communities
with each other as well as with external
resource networks.




Village Earth
http://www.villageearth.org/




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SECTION 5



NATURAL
BUILDING




NATURAL
BUILDING

Natural building involves a range
of building systems and materials
that place major emphasis on
sustainability.

Ways of achieving sustainability
through natural building focus on
durability and the use of:


minimally-processed,

plentiful
or renewable
natural materials,

as well as
those which,

while recycled
or salvaged,

produce healthy living
environments and maintain
indoor air quality.




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SECTION 6



ADOBE
CONSTRUCTION




ADOBE
CONSTRUCTION

One of the oldest building methods,
adobe is simply clay and sand mixed
with water.
Sometimes chopped straw or other
fibers are added for strength.

The mixture is then allowed to dry
in the desired shape. Usually adobe
is shaped into bricks that can be
stacked to form walls.

Adobe is a natural building material
composed of, sand, sandy clay and
straw or other organic materials,
which is shaped into bricks using
wooden frames and dried in the sun.

It is similar to cob and mudbrick.
Adobe structures are extremely
durable and account for the oldest
extant buildings on the planet.

Adobe buildings also offer significant
advantages in hot, dry climates; they
remain cooler as adobe stores and
releases heat very slowly.




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SECTION 7



CHIRPICI
CONSTRUCTION




CHIRPICI
CONSTRUCTION

Chirpici is a traditional construction
material made out of clay and straws.
Most chirpici bricks used in this
construction are made out of clay,
with straws and manure and are baked
in the sun before they are used.

The result is not as hardy as regular
bricks and it becomes less so with time.
It is also especially vulnerable during
floods.

After the advent of cement and mechanized
transportation, chirpici was no longer
used on such a large scale.




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SECTION 8



COB
CONSTRUCTION




COB
CONSTRUCTION

Cob is a building material consisting
of clay, sand, straw, water, and earth.

Cob is fireproof, resistant to seismic
activity, and inexpensive. It can be
used to create artistic, sculptural
forms and has been revived in recent
years by the natural building and
sustainability movements.




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SECTION 9



DOME
CONSTRUCTION




Airform, concrete, shotcrete,
polyurethane, foam, Monolithic,
domes, round, egg shaped, green.




DOME
CONSTRUCTION

Both Geodesic domes and Monolithic
share some of the same virtues: The
are both incredibly strong, energy
efficient, and can be economical to
build.

Modern insulated concrete dome
construction combines several
materials to create a strong,
efficient, weather-proof
structure.

Compared to other types of
structures for the same
application, the insulated
concrete dome is 50-75% more
energy-efficient.

Insulated concrete dome
construction consists of
four main phases.

Refinements to the design,
largely dictated by application,
will determine the work required
after construction of the basic
dome.



Phase One

Ring Beam Footing:
Continuous reinforcing bars
are embedded in the ring
beam foundation.

These rebar dowels securely
connect the dome to its
footing.

The ring beam creates a solid
base to construct the dome on.



Phase Two:

Inflate Airform

Made of tough, weather-impermiable
material, the airform is attached
to the ring beam footing.

The airform is then inflated with
dual inflator fans. The airform
determines the final shape of the
dome and becomes a protective cover
when the dome is completed.



Phase Three:

Polyurethane foam

The foam is spray applied from in
the interior to stiffen the airform,
and provide a secure surface to which
reinforcement bar is affixed.

The foam hardens and creates a superior
insulation layer in the final structure.



Phase Four:

Shotcrete

A framework of rebar is attached to
the interior surface of the foam.

Application of sprayed concrete
(shotcrete) to the reinforcement
bar framework comprises the final
step in construction of the dome.




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SECTION 10



GEODESIC
DOME
CONSTRUCTION




GEODESIC
DOME
CONSTRUCTION

Geodesic domes may be constructed
from concrete sections, or may be
constructed of a lightweight foam
with a layer of concrete applied
over the top.

The advantage of this method is
that each section of the dome is
small and easily handled.

The layer of concrete applied to
the outside bonds the dome into
a semi-monolithic structure.




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SECTION 11



MONLITHIC
DOME
CONSTRUCTION




MONLITHIC
DOME
CONSTRUCTION

Monolithic domes are cast in
one piece out of reinforced
concrete, and date back to
the 1960s.

Advocates of these domes consider
them to be cost-effective and
durable structures, especially
suitable for areas prone to
natural disasters.

They also point out the ease of
maintenance of these buildings.

Monolithic domes can be built as
homes, office buildings, or for
other purposes.




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SECTION 12



CONCRETE
SHELL
CONSTRUCTION




CONCRETE
SHELL
CONSTRUCTION

A concrete shell, also commonly
called the thin shell concrete
structure, is a structure
composed of a relatively thin
shell of concrete, usually with
no interior columns or exterior
buttresses.

The shells are most commonly flat
plates and domes, but may also
take the form of ellipsoids or
cylindrical sections, or some
combination thereof.

The first concrete shell dates
back to the second century.

Shells may be cast in place, or
pre-cast off site and moved into
place and assembled.

The strongest form of shell is the
monolithic shell, which is cast as
a single unit.

The most common monolithic form is
the dome, but ellipsoids and cylinders
(resembling concrete Quonset huts) are
also possible using similar construction
methods.




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SECTION 13



THIN
SHELL
CONSTRUCTION




THIN
SHELL
CONSTRUCTION

Thin-shell structures can be
defined as curved structures
capable of transmitting loads
in more than two directions
to supports.

Loads applied to shell surfaces
are carried to the ground by
the development of compressive,
tensile, and shear stresses
acting in the in-plane direction
of the surface.

Thin shell structures are uniquely
suited to carrying distributed loads
and find wide application as roof
structures in building.




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DOME
CONCRETE
THIN
SHELL
CONSTRUCTION
LINKS




Dome Technology
http://www.dometech.com/

Info For Building.com
http://www.infoforbuilding.com/

Monolithic Dome Institute
http://www.monolithic.com/

Professional Dome Plans
http://www.domeplans.com/



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SECTION 14



DUTCH
BRICK
CONSTRUCTION




DUTCH
BRICK
CONSTRUCTION

Dutch bricks are building-blocks
made, not of brick, but of a
mixture of concrete, sand and
soil.

They are not Dutch; rather, the name
results from the use of the word
Dutch" to mean "inferior".

The mixture of concrete, sand and soil
is also known as Mexican concrete when
poured in larger moulds.

This form of mudbrick has been adapted
widely by the peoples of the Sahel such
as Mali and Mauritania.

Its use has been popularized by Peace
Corps volunteers working in the region.

The similar process of Rammed earth is
also widespread in the continent of Africa
and developing countries.




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SECTION 15



EARTHBAG
CONSTRUCTION




EARTHBAG
CONSTRUCTION

Earthbag construction is a
very strong, very cheap way
of creating structures.

It is an alternative-building
technique that has evolved
from historic military bunker
construction techniques and
temporary flood-control dike
building methods.

The technique requires only
very basic construction
materials: sacks, filler
material such as sand or
gravel, barbed wire (using
the barbs on the wire as well
as the wire for reinforcing).

This system allows for rapidly
and inexpensively constructing
temporary or emergency shelters
or for long-term structures in
milder climates.

For finishing, it's necessary to
stucco or plaster the bag surfaces,
to prevent UV damage to the fabric.

Water-proofing is also needed for
non-vertical elements, in any but
the driest climates, and can be
accomplished by additives to the
bag-fill material, the stucco or
as an added layer on the surface.

Some designers/builders use a
planted-earth "living roof"
("green-roof") to top the
structure, or more conventional
framing and roof finishes may be
placed atop earth-bag walls.




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SECTION 16



EARTHSHIP
CONSTRUCTION




EARTHSHIP
CONSTRUCTION

Earthships are earth-sheltered
autonomous buildings made of
tires rammed with earth, which
are usually arranged in a "U"
or horseshoe shape.

Each tyre is rammed full of earth
using a sledge. Depending on its
size and the soil density a tyre
may weigh more than 300 pounds
when properly prepared.

Windows on the sunny side admit
light and heat. The "U" shape of
the structure faces South in the
northern hemisphere, and North in
the southern hemisphere, so that
the house will catch maximum
sunlight in the colder months.


The roof of an Earthship
is heavily insulated.



Earthships are autonomous buildings
designed to reduce our impact on the
planet and increase our connection
to it by:


Using the suns energy
and the thermalmass of
their walls for heating
and cooling.

Generating their own
electricity from the
sun.

Harvesting their own
water from rain.

Dealing directly with
their own waste.

Using discarded tyres
and other wastes for
wall construction.

Using materials with
low embodied carbon.

Being buildable by
most people at
relatively low cost.



EARTHSHIPS

Heat and cool
themselves
naturally via
solar/thermal
dynamics.

Collect their
own power from
the sun and the
wind.

Harvest their
own water from
rain and snow
melt.

Contain and
treat their
own sewage
on site.

Produce a
significant
amount of
food.

And are
constructed
using largely
the byproducts
of modern society;
like cans,
bottles,
tires.




BACK TO TOP



EARTHSHIP
CONSTRUCTION
LINKS




Earthship Biotecture
http://www.earthship.org/

Earthship Landing
http://www.earthships.com/

Low Carbon Network
http://www.lowcarbon.co.uk/



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SECTION 17



LOG
CABIN
CONSTRUCTION




LOG
CABIN
CONSTRUCTION

To build a frontier style log cabin,
cut notches on the ends of each log.

Stack the logs and fit the notched
ends together at the corners.

The frontier style log cabin:
was introduced by Swedish
settlers in the early 1700s.


used no nails,

contained only
one room,

was only 10
feet wide,

measured 12 to
20 feet long,

had at least
one glass window,

included a loft
area for sleeping,



To build a frontier
style log cabin:


lay a rock or stone
foundation to keep
logs above the damp
soil,

square off each log,

cut notches on the
top and bottom of
each end,

stack the logs and
fit the notched ends
together at the
corners,

"chick" (or stuff)
sticks and wood
chips in the gaps
between the logs,

fill remaining
spaces with mud,

cut open a door
and at least one
window,

build a stone
fireplace,

rake the dirt
and gravel
floor smooth.




BACK TO TOP



LOG
CABIN
LINKS




Learn to Build a Log Home
http://www.logbuilding.org/

Log Homes Council
http://www.loghomes.org/

Log Home Links.com
http://www.loghomelinks.com/

Your Log Home Center
http://www.yourloghomecenter.com/



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SECTION 18



MUDBRICK
CONSTRUCTION




MUDBRICK
CONSTRUCTION

A mudbrick is an unfired
brick made of clay.

In warm regions with little
timber available to fuel a
kiln, bricks were generally
sun dried.
This had the result that their

useful lifespan is reduced
to around thirty years.

Once a building collapsed,
new bricks would have to be
made and the new structure
rebuilt on top of the rubble
of the decayed old brick.

This phenomenon is the primary
factor behind the mounds or
tells on which many ancient
cities stand.




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SECTION 19



RAMMED
EARTH
CONSTRUCTION




RAMMED
EARTH
CONSTRUCTION

Rammed earth
construction,
also known as:
pisé de terre,
pisé,


an age-old building method that
has seen a revival in recent years
as people seek low-impact building
materials and natural building
methods.
Traditionally, rammed earth buildings
are common in arid regions where wood
is in scarce supply.

Walls are constructed from a mixture
of earth that has suitable proportions
of sand, gravel and clay sometimes with
an added stabilizer.
Traditional stabilizers such as lime or
animal blood were used to stabilise the
material, but cement has been the
stabilizer of choice for modern times.

Formwork is set up creating the desired
shape of the section of wall, the damp
material is poured in to a depth of
between 100 to 250mm (4 to 10 inches).

A pneumatically powered backfill tamper,
something like a hand-held pogo stick
with a flat plate on the bottom, is then
used to compact the material to around
50% of its original height.

Further layers of material are added and
the process is repeated until the wall
has reached the desired height.
The wall is so solid that if desired the
forms can be removed immediately.

This is necessary if wire brushing to
reveal texture is desired otherwise
walls become too hard to brush after
around 60 minutes.
Walls take some time to dry out completely,
but this does not prevent further work on
the project.

Any exposed walls should be sealed to prevent
water damage - there are several proprietary
products specifically designed to seal earth
walls.




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SECTION 20



RICE-HULL
BAGWALL
CONSTRUCTION




RICE-HULL
BAGWALL
CONSTRUCTION

Rice-hull bagwall construction
is a system of building, with
results aesthetically similar
to the use of earth-bag or cob
construction, in which woven
polypropylene bags (or tubes)
are tightly filled with raw
rice-hulls, and these are
stacked up, layer upon layer,
with strands of four-pronged
barbed wire between, within a
surrounding "cage" composed of
mats of welded or woven steel
mesh (remesh or "poultry wire")
on both sides (wired together
between bag layers with, for
example, rebar tie-wire) and
then stuccoed, to form building
walls.

Advantages (compared to earth-bag
or cob) include less weight to
handle/process, far better
insulation values (around 3 - 4
per inch), use of an agricultural,
waste product and the sequestration
of CO2.




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SECTION 21



SOD
CONSTRUCTION




SOD
CONSTRUCTION

Sod has occasionally been cut out
in blocks to use as a building
material, especially in grasslands
where grass is plentiful and few
other materials are available.

For use as a building material, sods
are cut out in regular block shapes
and laid like brickwork, although for
strength blocks of sod are usually
much longer and wider than typical
bricks.

The bare sod is prone to damage from
rain or being knocked down, so the
outer walls are usually protected
with a layer of stucco or wood
panelling.

Similarly, bare sod inside is dirty,
so the interior may be lined with
canvas, tarpaper, or plaster.

A variety of roofing methods can be
used, and the house can be fitted
with conventional windows and doors.

Sod houses have the advantages of
being very cheap, and well insulated,
so that they are cool in summer and
warm in winter.

The main disadvantages are that they
tend to be damp, and deteriorate
quickly unless maintained.




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SECTION 22



STRAW-BALE
CONSTRUCTION




STRAW-BALE
CONSTRUCTION

Straw-bale construction is
a building method that uses
straw bales as structural
elements, insulation, or
both.

It is commonly used in natural
building. It has advantages
over some conventional building
system because of its cost and
easy availability, and its high
insulation value.

Straw bale building typically
consists of stacking a series
of rows of bales (often in
running-bond) on a raised
footing or foundation, with
a moisture barrier between.

Bale walls are often tied
together with pins of bamboo,
rebar, or wood (internal to
the bales or on their faces),
or with surface wire meshes,
and then stuccoed or plastered,
either with cementaceous mixes,
lime-based formulations or with
earth/clay renders.

Bale buildings can either have a
structural frame of other materials,
with bales between (simply serving
as insulation and stucco substrate),
referred to as "infill",or the bales
may actually provide the support for
openings and roof, referred to as
"load-bearing" or "Nebraska-style",
or a combination of framing and
load-bearing may be employed,
referred to a "hybrid" straw bale.




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SECTION 23



TIMBER
FRAME
CONSTRUCTION




TIMBER
FRAMING

Timber framing is the modern term
for the traditional half-timbered
construction in which the timber
provides a visible skeletal frame
that supports the whole building.




TIMBER
FRAME
CONSTRUCTION

Timber frame construction is a method
of building that relies on a timber
frame as a basic means of structural
support.

Framed buildings are often referred
to as ‘lightweight construction’, but
don’t be misled – like the skeleton
in your body, it’s a precision
engineered structure that is remarkably
strong and durable.

Its environmental and overall sustainability
credentials are second to none. Timber frame
also delivers high build quality, a faster
and more efficient construction process and
the opportunity to design beautiful, adaptable
and durable homes as a lasting legacy for
future generations.


The main structure
The completed frame of a modern timber
frame home:
Projecting ("jettied") upper storeys of
an English half-timbered village rowhouse,
the jetties plainly visibleBy tradition,
the timbers, with their riven side facing
out, were mortised and pegged together,
often receiving triangulated bracing to
reinforce other members of the structure.

The spaces between the timber frames were
then infilled with wattle-and-daub, brick
or rubble, with plastered faces on the
exterior and interior which were often
“ceiled” with wainscoting for insulation
and warmth.

This method of infilling the spaces created
the half-timbered style, with the timbers of
the frame being visible both inside and outside
the building.


The benefits of
timber framing

The use of timber framing in buildings offers
various aesthetic and structural benefits, as
the timber frame lends itself to open plan
designs and allows for complete enclosure in
effective insulation for energy efficiency.




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SECTION 24



POST
AND
BEAM




POST
AND
BEAM

Post and beam construction is a method
of construction which uses large, widely
spaced members to provide structural
support.

It is a principle method of wood construction
which offers the designer the possibility of
combining function with the unique beauty of
wood.

In light framing construction, the framing
serves as structure, as exterior sheathing
and interior finish support, and as the
insulation cavity.

The sheathing and framing together resist
lateral loads or racking.


Contemporary post,
beam construction,
timber frame differ
in the following ways:


POST AND BEAM
Timber, glulam,
parallel strand lumber (PSL),
laminated veneer lumber (LVL)
are used for main members,

Shop preparation of connections
is possible.

Metal fasteners are used for speed,
economy, and strength.



TIMBER FRAME
Hardwood or softwood timber is used for
main members usually in a 'green' state,
or of a high moisture content.

Recycled or radio-frequency kiln dried
timber is also available to reduce
movement and checking in the timbers as
they dry out.

Both these options come with higher cost
considerations. Glulam can also be
incorporated into timber framing.

Precise shop preparation of joints is
almost always required,

Fastening is based on the interlocking
of members by friction fit, by the use
of hardwood pegs, and where employed,
traditional joining techniques.




BACK TO TOP



TIMBER
FRAME
POST
AND
BEAM
LINKS




Canadian Wood Council
http://www.canadianwoodcouncil.ca/

The Carpenters Fellowship
http://www.carpentersfellowship.co.uk/

Timber Framers Guild
http://www.tfguild.org/

The Timber Research and Development
Association TRADA

http://www.trada.co.uk/

Traditional-Building.com/
http://www.traditional-building.com/

UK Timber Frame Association
http://www.timber-frame.org/



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SECTION 25



EARTH
PLASTER




EARTH
PLASTER

Earth plasters are made from
natural sand and clay and make
a durable substitue for gypsum
plaster and paints.




Building With Awarenesse
http://www.buildingwithawareness.com/




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SECTION 26



BIOSHELTERS




BIOSHELTERS
The mix between biology, architecture and
ecological design. A systemic design that
incorporates the biological elements into
a structure that is greenhouse, aquaculture
facility and residence for the people who
who work in it. This type of project can
work for a small structure, village, rural
small towns or parts of a city.



Bioshelters:
Hydroponics
& Aquaculture
Working Together.


Bioshelters are described as a "crucible
of change toward a non-nuclear and solar
future."

However wise this notion may be, the main
drawback is the fact that bioshelters are
inconceivable for the majority of the
world's poor.

To popularize the notion of a bioshelter,
most looked to Dr. Margaret Mead for
inspiration. While Mead died, her advice
was to incorporate biospheres into a
village setting "as most people in the
world will never be able to afford a
private house.

" More importantly, Dr. Mead recognized
that villages in the past and in the
future are important links for regenerating
traditional land-based cultures.

Bioshelters' facility is unique in that
its hydroponic system is directly linked
to its aquaculture tanks. In this way,
the fish make food for the plants and the
plants clean the water for the fish, and
the system recycles 99.7% of all its water
and wastes.




BACK TO TOP



BIOSHELTERS
LINKS




Bioshelters
http://www.bioshelters.com/

The Growing Edge Magazine
http://www.growingedge.com/

JACK MAGAZINE
http://www.jackmagazine.com/

Southern Region Sustainable
Agriculture Research and Education

http://www.southernsare.uga.edu/

The Waterfield Farms
http://www.waterfieldfarms.net/



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SECTION 26A



OCEAN
ARKS
INTERNATIONAL




OCEAN
ARKS
INTERNATIONAL

Ocean Arks International, founded
in 1981 by visionary Ecological
Designer Dr. John Todd, is a global
leader in the field of ecological
water purification.

In response to the alarming rate of
natural resource exploitation and
depletion, our mission is to
disseminate the ideas and the practices
of ecological sustainability throughout
the world.



Ocean Arks International
http://www.oceanarks.org/




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SECTION 27



BIODESIGN
BIOARCHITECTURE




BIODESIGN
BIOARCHITECTURE

Fostering connection through transparency
was the overriding design strategy for the
facility.

Architectural, planning, building design,
site design, documentation, construction
administration, office planning, programming,
interior design, structural engineering,
landscape architecture, environmental renewal
and sustainability, and on safety and security,
structure and function of living systems,
sustainable systems, fitness for use,demands
for power,


Flexibility:
Features allowing quick,
easy adaptation to changes
in technology and research
goals.


Communication and collaboration:
Bringing together people from
varied fields.


Scientific hub:
Creating a true core for science
in the site and on the campus as
a whole.


Sustainability:
The university has a strong commitment
to sustainable design.




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BIODESIGN
BIOARCHITECTURE
LINKS







Aquaponics Journal
http://www.aquaponicsjournal.com/

Aquaculture Research/Environmental
Associates, Inc AREA

http://www.areainc.com/

ASU FOUNDATION
http://www.asufoundation.org/

The Biodesign Institute
http://www.biodesign.asu.edu/

Bioshelters
http://www.bioshelters.com/

EcoSherpa
http://www.ecosherpa.com/

E Green Ideas
http://www.egreenideas.com/

IN CONTEXT
http://www.context.org/

The Kohala Center
http://www.kohalacenter.org/

Office of Science and Technology OST
http://www.ostina.org/

One Village Foundation
http://www.onevillagefoundation.org/

The Sustainable Village.com
http://www.thesustainablevillage.com/

TODD ECOLOGY
http://www.toddecological.com/



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SECTION 28



WATTLE
AND
DAUB




WATTLE
AND
DAUB

A building material consisting of
interwoven rods and laths or twigs
plastered with mud or clay, used
especially in the construction of
simple dwellings or as an infill
between members of a timber-framed
wall.

Wattle and daub are building materials
used in constructing houses. A woven
latticework of wooden stakes called
wattles is daubed with a mixture of
clay and sand and sometimes animal
dung and straw to create a structure.

The daub was sometimes mixed, (a
laborious process by hand) by placing
it in farm gateways for the animals
to trample through.

Hence the dung would have been introduced
more as a side-effect than intentionally,
although it does no harm to the mix. It
is normally whitewashed to increase its
resistance to rain.

Examples of buildings which use wattle and
daub can still be found in many parts of
the world. In half-timbered buildings, the
wattle and daub is contained between wooden
beams.

This usually gives the building a black and
white appearance when the daub is whitewashed,
or black and brown, if it is not.




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SECTION 29



BIODESIGN




BioDesign, environmental landscape design,
arboriculture, environmental horticulture,
Indigenous plant species selection, design,
Designing for the environmentally sensitive
lifestyles, Urban landscapes, native wildlife
and vegetation, herb, science, new technology.




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BIODESIGN
LINKS




The Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University
http://www.asu.edu/

Complete Home.com.au
http://www.completehome.com.au/

Issues in Science and Technology
http://www.issues.org/

Innovations-Report
http://www.innovations-report.com/

LIFESCIENCE WORLD
http://www.lifescienceworld.com/

Office of Science & Technology
http://www.ostina.org/

OUTDOOR DESIGN
http://www.outdoordesign.com.au/

Universal Magazines
http://www.universalmagazines.com.au/

Universal Shop
http://www.universalshop.com.au/



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SECTION 30



GREEN
BUILDING




Green, solar home, solar homes,
green building, green homes,
sustainable homes, sustainable,
carbon footprint, log, log home,
gethermal home, geothermal homes,
hybrid house, hybrid home, energy,
efficient, energy efficient, carbon,
carbon sequestration, natural home,
energy saving home, timber home,
timberhome, solid wood home, kit home,
environmental home, environmental homes,
fuel free living, fuel-free living,
energy efficient home, energy without oil,
affordable, affordable homes, off-grid.




A method of building homes and
offices in which natural materials
and natural forces are used to
create a comfortable environment
without the use of fuel or or that
of electricity.

Once completed, even before you move
in, these new homes will have come
alive with a natural atmospheric cycle,
like the Earth, on which they are based.

A built-in "biosphere," in gradual but
constant motion, draws energy from the
sun, and geothermal stability from the
ground, creating a temperate climate
that buffers the primary living space.

In the Enertia Building System, solid
Energy-Engineered(tm) wood walls replace
siding, framing, insulation, and paneling.

An air flow and access channel, or Envelope,
runs around the building, just inside the
walls - creating a miniature biosphere.

Here solar heated air circulates, pumping
and boosting geothermal energy from beneath
the house, storing it in the massive wood
walls.

Thermal inertia causes the house to "float"
between the cycles of night and day, and
even between the seasons.



ENERTIA BUILDING
http://www.enertia.com/




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SECTION 31



ALTERNATIVE
NATURAL
ECOLOGY
BUILDING
LINKS




40 Tips To Go Green At Home
http://theartofsimple.net/tips-to-go-green-at-home/

Appropriate Infrastructure
Development Group (AIDG)

http://www.aidg.org/

National Sustainable Agriculture
Information Service ATTRA

http://www.attra.org/

Blue Energy
http://www.blueenergy.org/

The Buckminster Fuller
Institute

http://www.bfi.org/

Building With Awarenesse
http://www.buildingwithawareness.com/

Builders Without Borders
http://www.builderswithoutborders.org/

Centre for Alternative
Technology CAT

http://www.cat.org.uk/

Construction HQ
http://www.construction-hq.com/

Concrete Thinking for a Sustainable World
http://www.concretethinker.com/

Conserving Water
http://www.epa.gov/greenhomes/ConserveWater.htm

Eco Smart Building
http://www.ecosmartbuilding.com/

Eco-union
http://www.eco-union.org/

Ecraftsmen
http://www.ecraftsmen.co.uk/

EPA
http://www.epa.gov/

Financial Incentives for Green Home Improvements
http://www.redfin.com/blog/2013/09/how-to-find-tax-rebates-and-incentives-for-green-home-improvements.html

Fabric Building Yurts
http://www.weatherport.com/fabric_building/yurts/

Global Green
http://www.globalgreen.org/

Green Building
http://www.greenbuilder.com/

Green Building Pages
http://www.greenbuildingpages.com/

Greener Shelter
http://www.greenershelter.com/

Greening Advisor: Transportation and Accommodation
http://www.nrdc.org/enterprise/greeningadvisor/ta-transportation.asp

Green Home Building
http://www.greenhomebuilding.com/

The Growing Edge Magazine
http://www.growingedge.com/

Home Solar Panels: Pros and cons of solar power
http://www.expertise.com/home-and-garden/home-solar-panels-pros-cons-and-hidden-costs

Inhabitat
http://www.inhabitat.com/

Jack Magazine
http://www.jackmagazine.com/

Karavans
http://www.karavans.com/

The Kohala Center
http://www.kohalacenter.org/

Learn Straw Bale
http://www.strawbale.com/

Make Your Home into a "Green" Energy Machine
http://www.mortgagecalculator.org/helpful-advice/green-homes.php

Natural Building Network
http://www.naturalbuildingnetwork.org/

Networks Productions
http://www.networkearth.org/

Skyscraper News UK
http://www.skyscrapernews.com/

Sustainable Architecture Development
Building and Culture

http://www.sustainableabc.com/

World Changing
http://www.worldchanging.com/



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ANCIENT ARTS CRAFTS TECHNOLOGY


BAMBOO


BIOMIMICRY


BIONEER


CODEX


COHOUSE


GREEN INDEX


GREEN ROOFS


GREEN SUB-INDEX


HOME


INFRASTRUCTURES TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION


LIVINGWALLS


PEDESTRIAN FRIENDLY COMMUNITY


E-MAIL




APPROPEDIA
SUSTAINABILITY
INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

http://www.appropedia.org/




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